Gunnery Network
Gunnery Network

Gun Glossary - Numbers
Index of Firearm & Gun Terminology

  1-10 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z 

Numbers Page Updated: 09 March 2003

1 * :  Unofficial logo of some SWAT Cops and other armed professional working in harm's way. Used as a reminder that we only have "one ass to risk". The slogan and logo were originated by gun writer Gary Paul Johnston.

180 RULE:  When on the firing line – either at a practice range or during competition – the muzzle of the gun must be pointed downrange.  The 180 rule requires that the gun not be turned laterally more than 90 degrees left or right (a total of 180 degrees, hence the name of the rule).  All organizations and ranges should observe this rule.

1911:  Standard "Government" model 1911 .45 ACP semi-automatic handgun.  Originally this design came from Colt but there are now many manufacturers making guns of this type. It is an extremely popular choice for action shooting and self-defense in the United States.

22 LR:  .22 caliber "Long Rifle" but this is also a pistol ammunition.  22 LR is by far the most popular rimfire cartridge for handguns.

.222 MAGNUM: When comparing the 222 Magnum and the 223, the case size appears to be nearly identical. However the 222 Magnum is about 1/10" of an inch longer and holds about 1/2 to 1 grain more powder, 223 cartridges should not be fired in the 222 Magnum, as the case dimensions are different and the cases are likely to rupture, possible causing injury.

223: Common term for ammunition and arms that are caliber .233 Remington.  Usage: My new rifle is a "Two Two Three".

.223 REMINGTON: The caliber .223 Remington began as a military cartridge in 1957 (evolving into the current 5.56 NATO cartridge used in the U.S. Army M-16 and many other assault rifles) and was later introduced by Remington as a commercial round. The cartridge is now chambered by numerous manufacturers in a variety of firearms. Most popular of those being "Americas Rifle" the AR-15 in its many forms and spin off model numbers. Because military surplus brass is readily available and inexpensive, the 223 is more popular than the 222 Magnum, and its popularity is still growing.

Caliber .223 Remington Specifications
Caliber .223 Remington Specifications

 BARREL:  26", 1 IN 12" TWIST    MAXIMUM C.O.L.:  2.260

The 223 is an excellent choice for varmint hunters, plinkers, police carbine and self-defense and the types of commercial actions in which this cartridge is available, ranges from the AR-15 semi automatic to the expensive bolt action rifles made by almost every gun company on earth. Couple this wide assortment of firearms with a superb selection of 22 caliber bullets and the 223 is my choice for any 22 caliber use. Some disagree and love to disparage the .233 - most of them have never been shot at or used a M-16 in combat. See the Mouse that roared article below for more insights.

About the "Mouse Gun" Round
Clarifying some popular gun shop and Internet fables
by Dean Speir

There has been a great deal of resentment surrounding the .223 Remington cartridge since its inception during the 1950s, and continuing right up to this day with no less, and no more, an eminence than Jeff Cooper disdainfully dismissing it as "a mouse gun round."

Formally introduced in 1964 as the military's Ball Cartridge M193 round for the experimental semi-automatic and light automatic rifles designed by Eugene Stoner, L. James Sullivan and Robert Fremont of ArmaLite Division of Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation, the 5.56 X 45mm (nee .222 Special) or 5.56mm NATO had evolved along parallel lines with the .222 Remington Magnum (nee .224 Springfield) cartridge, but with roughly one grain less of case capacity.

(The "triple deuce magnum," a prototypal military round for use in light combat arms, had itself been developed jointly by Remington Arms Company and U.S. Springfield Armory¹ in the mid-'50s as part of Project SALVO.²)

Although the military had had its problems with the replacement for its venerable M1 Garand, the M14 chambered in 7.62 X 51mm, hard corps types, feeling that there was something unseemly about a fighting rifle of anything less than .30 caliber, denigrated the 5.56mm at practically every opportunity, and there is considerable evidence that the Army Ordnance Corps³ (which had built the M14 itself) actually tried to rig the U.S. Military procurement tests to the disadvantage of the AR-15/5.56mm combination. That the 5.56mm/.223 Remington has succeeded as the military's designated round for its infantrymen for as long as it has may be viewed as something of a minor miracle.

The .222 Special, now renamed the .223 Remington so as to avoid confusion with the other two "triple deuce rounds," was released commercially as a sporting arms cartridge when the company for which it is named brought out their Model 760 slide action rifle in that chambering for the 1964 season. The gun writers of the day for the most part gave it short shrift, arguing that it was "wimpier "than the already established .222 Rem. Mag., and that the geometry of the cartridge with its relatively short neck was violating a cardinal design rule. 

As more carbines and rifles were introduced for the .223 Remington, the .222 Remington Magnum has all but disappeared. (So too, for all practical purposes, has the original .222 Remington, once the standard for benchrest competitors who have abandoned it in wholesale numbers for the fat little PPC cartridges of .22 and 6mm designation which Ferris Pindell and Dr. Louis Palmisano introduced to great acclaim in the early '70s.)

Undoubtedly what has solidified the .223 Remington's place in the hierarchy of small bore rifle chambering has been the enormous popularity of Sturm, Ruger & Company's Mini-14 (and subsequent "Ranch Rifle" edition) and the many variations of the Colt's AR-15, the semi-auto version of the military M16, the celebrated, ofttimes notorious, but ubiquitous "black rifle" of Vietnam.

Background on the 5.56mm

In the aftermath of the Second World War, the United States Military determined that it had a requirement for a detachable-magazine rifle with a fully-automatic capability. After a less-than-satisfactory honeymoon with the 7.62 NATO/M80 (a commercial version of which was released by Olin as the .308 Winchester), those involved in the Small Caliber/High Velocity (SCHV) program at Maryland's Aberdeen Proving Ground agitated for a lightweight, select-fire rifle firing... no surprise here!... a smaller, mid-power, high-velocity cartridge. (Coincidentally, within this same period, the military of many other countries were experimenting with sub-.30 caliber guns that were controllable in full-auto, and allowed more rounds to be carried.

CAR15 Into the M1 Garand/M14 breech stepped small arms designer Gene Stoner of ArmaLite. Having designed the 7.62x51mm AR-10 rifle, Stoner listened when General Willard G. Wyman, Commanding General of the U.S. Continental Army Command (CONARC) suggested that a scaled down version might be looked upon with favor by the SCHV program. ArmaLite engineers Jim Sullivan and Bob Fremont thereupon reduced the AR-10 around the hot varmint cartridge of the day, the .222 Remington.

In the early-to-mid-'50s there had been three .22 caliber cartridges, all "stretched" versions of the popular "triple-deuce," which were vying to be the next military round:

  • .224 Winchester 
  • .224 Springfield 
  • .222 Special, a Stoner-design

After preliminary testing by the U.S. military, it was apparent that the .222 Remington developed excessive pressures when loaded to meet the Army's ballistic requirements. At the same time, the pair of .224s also fell by the wayside. While the experimental .224 Springfield had the increased power sought, it was felt that its geometry would have prevented positive feeding in an automatic self-loading rifle. Stoner's .222 Special case was then simply lengthened into the 5.56x45mm cartridge (a/k/a .223 ArmaLite) and released commercially as the .223 Remington with virtually identical exterior ballistics as the .222 Remington Magnum.

After U.S.A.F. General Curtis LeMay got a look at the scaled down AR10, AR15, and was impressed enough to have the "black rifle" adopted by the Air Force, the rest of the military gradually fell into line, aided in no small amount by continuing problems with the M14 program. Designated the M16, the Stoner-Sullivan-Fremont gun survived everything from ammo-related problems (Winchester's curious selection of propellants which caused reliability problems in the rifle's finicky gas system) to invidious references by traditionalists to its evolutionary plastic appurtenances ("Weapons by Mattel"), and went on to become one of the most recognizable icons of the Vietnam war.

¹.- Not to be confused with the present day commercial enterprise in Geneseo, Illinois which in the mid-'80s had appropriated the then defunct Government arsenal's famous name.

².- Project SALVO, a precursor to the Special Purpose Individual Weapon [SPIW] project of the early '60s, explored numerous schemes of enhancing hit probability such as multiple barrels, multiple projectile loadings including flechettes, and "small-caliber, high-velocity" (SCHV) cartridges the likes of the .224" wildcats from G.A. Gustafson (a cut-down .222 Remington chambered in a modified M-2 Carbine) and William C. Davis Jr. (a necked down .30 Light Rifle [T65] case).

³.- Having fought so hard for the 7.62x51mm standard, the T65 cartridge and the T44 (M14) rifle, Ordnance Corps officials could not afford to allow competing projects to cast doubt on their decisions and usurp their authority. This is why potential SCHV projects from within AOC were axed by Dr. Frederick H. Carten. These included Gustafson's and Davis' proposed intermediate .224" cartridge, along with the Springfield Armory prototype rifle chambered in .224 Springfield. In contrast, Gustafson's work on the modified M-2 Carbine had been allowed to proceed unencumbered by politics since it didn't threaten the idea of a "full-power" infantry rifle. Instead, it was to provide a replacement for the M-2 Carbine.

U.S. 5.56mm Cartridge Designations
M193 Ball (55-grains)
M195 Grenade
M196 Tracer (54 grains)
M197 HPT
M199 Dummy
M200 Blank
M202 Ball (58 grains)
M232 Dummy
• M755 Blank
M855 Ball (62-grain)
M856 Tracer (63.7 grains)
M995 AP
XM996 (Dim Tracer)

5.56mm Cartridge Descriptions

Both M193, with its copper-jacketed and cannelure lead-core bullet (see representative cartridge drawing), and its companion M196 tracing round (identified by a red tip), are now used during range training. The latter is designed to trace out to 500 yards.

The M195 is used with the grenade projection adapter.

The M197 High Pressure Test (HPT) is identified by its plain tip and silver, as opposed to brass, case.

The M199 is used during mechanical training (loading practice), "simulated firing to detect flinching of personnel when firing," and for "inspecting and testing the weapon mechanisms." Case has six (6) longitudinal corrugations (flutings) and the primer pocket is open to prevent wear to the firing pin.

The M200 is deployed during training when simulated live fire is desired. The case mouth is closed with a seven-petal rosette crimp and has a violet tip. (An M15A2 blank-firing device must be installed to fire this ammunition.) Note: use of the original M200 blank cartridges, identified by their white tip, resulted in a malfunction-inducing residue buildup, and were replaced by the current, violet-tipped blank cartridge.

The M202 (SSX822) is the new 58 grain FMJ "tri-metal penetrator."

The M232 is used for function testing. The entire round has black chemical finish and no primer.

The NATO standard, M855 round is intended for use against light materiel targets and personnel, but not vehicles. Identified by a green tip, the 62 grain projectile is constructed of a lead alloy core topped by a steel penetrator, the whole contained within a gilding (copper alloy) metal jacket. The primer and case are waterproof. (See representative cartridge drawing.) Despite the round's penetration abilities, BATF has specifically exempted it from the AP ban.

The M856, identified by an orange tip on its copper-plated steel jacket, is used for observation of fire, incendiary effects and signaling. As with all illuminated bullets except the new Hornady rounds introduced in the mid-'90s, it is hollowed out at the base and a tracing compound appended. (See representative cartridge drawing.) The perceived requirement to stabilize this round caused the M16A2 to have a 1:7-inch rate of twist instead of the more desirable 1:9-inch. Much longer than the earlier M196 tracer bullets (55 grain), it is designed to trace out to 875 yards.

M862 Short Range Training Ammunition The M862 Short Range Training Ammunition (SRTA) provides a realistic training alternative to M193/M855 service rounds. With a maximum range of 250 meters, the "plastic practice" round has an effective range of 25 meters, but requires the M2 Training Bolt when used in the M16A2 Rifle.

The M995, identified by its black-tip, uses a shaped tungsten core in a jacketed envelope, and penetrates 12 mm armor plate of 300 HB at 100 meters. It began development in 1992 as part of the Soldier Enhancement Program, and its primary mission is to improve incapacitation capability against troops within lightly armored threat vehicles.

The XM996 Dim Tracer ammunition provides the user with a tracing round which is invisible when viewed with the naked eye but which can be seen when viewed through night vision devices (NVDs) and does not cause visual interference to the wearer of a NVD. Standard tracer ammunition provides excessive illumination/visual interference ("blooming" effect) to the user when viewed through NVDs.
M193M193 Cartridge, 5.56mm, BALL. Unpainted tip. For use against personnel and unarmored targets.

Variously referred to as: 5.56 Ball, .223 ArmaLite, .223 Remington Special, 5.56 x 45mm.

Suitable for use in most weapons with a 1:12" barrel twist. 5.56mm Rifles: M16, M16A1, M16A2, AR15, H&K, Galil, Ruger, FN, SIG, other compatible systems.

M855M855 Cartridge, 5.56mm, BALL. Green bullet tip. For use against personnel and light armored targets.

Variously referred to as: 5.56 x 45mm, 5.56 Penetrator.

Suitable for use in most weapons with a 1:7" barrel twist. 5.56mm Machine Gun: M249.² 5.56mm Rifles: M16A2, M4, M4A1, H&K.

M856M856 Cartridge, 5.56mm, TRACER. Orange bullet tip. Allows observation of projectile trajectory to the point of impact.

Sometimes referred to as: M855 Penetrator Tracer.

Suitable for use in most weapons with a 1:7" barrel twist same as M855. Often in links as every fifth round.

M200M200 Cartridge, 5.56mm, BLANK. Rosette crimped closure of cartridge case mouth. For simulated firing.

Sometimes referred to as: Blank Training Cartridge.

Suitable in 5.56mm Rifles: M16, M16A1, M16A2, M4, M4A1 and other compatible systems.
Images courtesy of Alliant Techsystems, Inc. (ATK) Lake City Small Caliber Ammunition Company, the sole source provider to the U.S. Department of Defense for small caliber ammunition, producing approximately 500 to 600 million rounds annually.

Notes on the 5.56mm / .223 Remington

Better designation is "5.56mm NATO Ball." The Ball part can usually be skipped as it's the most common round and just referenced as "5.56mm NATO."

"SS109" is the original Fabrique Nationale cartridge from which the "NATO standard" was derived. U.S. M855 Ball meets this standard, but isn't "SS109" as this is the Belgium service round, probably Dutch, as well. Canadian 5.56mm NATO is C77 and there are numerous others.

The 5.56mm Steyr AUG from Austria"5.56mm NATO" (not 5.56x45 NATO) is the actual standard, but the SS109 name has stuck just like ".30-06" stuck in the U.S. Army.

"5.56mm NATO Ball" describes a specific cartridge, not a class of cartridges. The projectile is roughly 62 grains in weight and is projected at about 3100 fps at the muzzle. Lots of dimensional and pressure standards, too. 5.56x45 describes a class of cartridges which can be anything. U.S. M193 Ball is 5.56mm Ball, but it isn't "5.56mm NATO Ball."

There is a difference between "5.56mm NATO Ball" and the commercial ".223 Remington." The American Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers' Institute issued an advisory about this issue more than 20 years ago when military 5.56mm ammo started showing up in sporting goods stores.

Two (2) Major Theater War. Current U.S. Military strategy that mandates and plans for the ability to deploy to, fight and win a major war in two (2) separate theaters or geographic locations simultaneously.

3 DOT SIGHTS: A type of notch and post sight where the rear sight has a dot on each side of the notch.  The front sight (the post) also has a dot.  When using this type of sight the shooter aligns three dots (front sight in the center) and places aligns the front dot with the target.

5.56 NATO: NATO and general military small arms ammunition cartridge in which the bore / projectile / bullet is 5.56 mm in diameter. The cartridge grew out of developments in the mid-1950's for a modern battlefield rifle and is almost identical to the .223 Remington.  See detail block below.


BACKGROUND: We are often asked whether our rifles feature NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) or SAAMI (Small Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute) standard chambers, and whether it makes any difference.   


.223 Remington (SAAMI standard) and 5.56mm (NATO standard) rifle chambers are almost identical.  The difference is largely limited to the “freebore,” the cylindrical space in front of the case mouth, and the “lead” or “leade,” the the tapered region that eases the bullet into full engagement with the rifling.  NATO and SAAMI cartridges can normally be used interchangeably with no problem.

The SAAMI chamber features less freebore and a tighter leade, which normally provide better bullet fit and match-grade accuracy than the NATO chamber.  It is wonderfully suited to match bullets. 

Millions of rounds of NATO ammunition have been fired safely in Eagle Arms' and ArmaLite’s SAAMI chambers over the past 15 years.  Occasionally a non-standard round (of generally imported) ammunition will fit too tightly in the leade, and resistance to early bullet movement can cause elevated chamber pressures.  These pressures are revealed by overly flattened or powder stains that reveal gasses leaking around the primer. 

The first few rounds of ALL ammunition, from whatever source or lot, should be checked for pressure and other signs of defect before firing large quantities.  If you have a problem, you can generally bet that the ammunition meets neither SAAMI nor NATO specifications.

ArmaLite has adopted a practice of using a special, modified SAAMI chambers in its stainless steel match barrels.  This chamber is better for match use than the NATO chamber, but fires the NATO ammunition perfectly.  We use the NATO chamber in all moly (phosphated) and chrome-lined barrels.

ArmaLite’s larger AR-10® rifles are all chambered with 7.62mm NATO chambers.  .308 Winchester (SAAMI standard) ammunition functions perfectly in the 7.62mm chambers.

Information Courtesy of and Copyright by © 2001 ArmaLite Inc®

M1 Abrams:  Abrams Main Battle Tank. The M-1 Abrams MBT, is an American main battle tank. It is manned by a crew of four, weighs 54.5 tones, and a top road speed of 72 kmph. It is armed with a 105mm smooth bore main gun with an effective range of 2500m. It can carry 55 rounds of ammunition, including HEAT and SABOT shells.

M1 Carbine: The M1 is a US gas operated carbine rifle. It takes a .30 caliber straight pistol type round from a 15/30-round box. It has a muzzle velocity of 585 m/s and has fixed sights set at 275m.

M1A1 Carbine: The M1A1 is a folding stock version of the M1 carbine rifle.

M1A1 MAIN BATTLE TANK (MBT): The M1A1 MBT is the current generation U.S. Main Battle Tank (MBT).  It takes a four man crew and is armed with a 120mm smoothbore gun, a 7.62mm coaxial machine gun, a 12.7 mm (.50 caliber) roof mounted heavy machine gun and a 7.62mm roof mounted machine gun. It is equipped with a laser rangefinder and thermal imaging night sights.  40 shells are carried for the main gun. It has a top road speed of 67 kmph. Defenses include Chobham Armor and a laser warning system.

M2: The M2 is an American IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicle). It is also know as the Bradley Fighting Vehicle or Bradley.  It is armed with a 25mm Hughes machine gun and a 7.62mm coaxial machine gun and carries 2 TOW ATGMS.  It has a top speed of 66kph. The IFV replaced the APC or Armored Personnel Carrier series M-113.  See also M2A1.

M2A1: The M2A1 or Bradley IFV entered service with the US army in 1982. It carries a crew of 3 and a 7 man infantry squad.  The M2A1 is armed with a twin TOW 2 launcher in the turret and can carry an additional 5 missiles, including TOW, Dragons and Stingers. The main gun is a 25mm automatic chain gun for which 900 rounds of APDS and HE ammunition is carried. The M2A1 has a top road speed of 66kph.

M2HB: Model 2 Heavy Barrel: The M2HB is the Browning .50 caliber heavy machine gun mounted on American military vehicles and aircraft since the Second World War. It has a muzzle velocity of 890m/s and fires ball ammunition.

M3: The M3 Bradley is the American Cavalry Fighting Vehicle ( CFV) version of the M2.  As the Scout cousin of the Bradley IFV, it has a smaller crew and carries more TOW ATGM's.  It specializes in the Scout and Reconnaissance role and has slightly thicker Armor than the M2 IFV.  See also M3A1.

M3 Grant: The M3 Grant Tank was the British designation of the American M3 Lee medium tank.

M3 Lee: The M3 Lee Tank was an American medium tank of the Second World War. It went into production in 1941 and was designed by the Rock Island Arsenal.  It was a 27-ton medium tank with a 75mm gun mounted in a side sponson, a 37mm gun plus co-axial machine gun in a small rotating turret, a bow machine gun and a fourth machine gun on the commander's cupola for all-round and anti-aircraft defense.  It had a crew of six, Armor plate up to 57mm thick and could achieve a top speed of 42kmph and had a range of 193km.

M3 Stuart: The M3 Stuart was an American light tank used during the Second World War. It weighed 14.4 tons and was driven by the Continental radial air-cooled W-670-9A engine which developed 250bhp and gave a top speed of 58 kmph and a range of 112 km. The M3 Stuart was crewed by four men and armed with a 37mm and co-axial machine gun in the turret, plus an extra machine gun in the hull front. It had Armor up to a thickness of 38mm.

M3A1: The M3A1 (Bradley) CFV is the Cavalry/Scout variant of the M2A1 used by the American army in reconnaissance units.  It carries a crew of 3 plus 2 infantry scouts used to load the twin TOW 2 launcher in the turret.  The main gun is a 25mm automatic chain gun for which 1200 rounds of APDS and HE ammunition are carried. 12 missiles are carried for the TOW missile launcher.  The M3A1 has a top road speed of 66kph.

M4 CARBINE:  A shortened variant of the M16A2 rifle, the M4 provides the individual soldier operating in close quarters the capability to engage targets at extended range with accurate, lethal fire.  

America's Great Guns

M4 Carbine
M4 Carbine
M4 Carbine shown with Trijicon ACOG


The M4 Carbine is a lightweight, gas operated, air cooled, magazine fed, selective rate, shoulder fired weapon with a collapsible stock. A shortened variant of the M16A2 rifle, the M4 provides the individual soldier operating in close quarters the capability to engage targets at extended range with accurate, lethal fire. The M4 Carbine achieves over 80% commonality with the M16A2 Rifle and will replace all M3 .45 caliber submachine guns and selected M9 pistols and M16 rifle series.



The M4/M4A1 carbines serves with American Special Operations Forces, most notably the U.S. Army Rangers, Marine Force Recon and the U.S. Navy SEAL Platoons. And the Army has begun general issue of the M4/M4A1 to main force units, like the 82nd Airborne and 101st Airborne. The M4/M4A1 carbine is replacing the M16A2 and sometimes the M9 Beretta pistol in the troops' hands because the rifle gives up little to its larger parent in terms of range and lethality while being much handier and more compact.


After the military conflicts in Panama, the Persian Gulf and Somalia, the need for a shorter version of the M16A2 again appeared.  Colt engineers shortened the barrel back to 14.5", and mill contoured the barrel to mount the M203 grenade launcher and added a modified version of the collapsible, sliding butt stock of the earlier XM177 series rifle. 

They also created a new upper receiver using a modular sight mounting system for use on a sub-variant. In August, 1994, both variations were adopted. The United States Carbine, Caliber 5.56mm NATO, M4 uses the new barrel and collapsible buttstock, but was first issued with the standard M16A2 upper receiver and sights to streamline production, though it now is made with the new modular upper receiver. 

The M4 could be fired either semi-automatically or with three round bursts. The United States Carbine, Caliber 5.56mm NATO, M4A1 uses the new barrel and collapsible buttstock and the new upper receiver for mounting a wide variety of sights, including night vision and infrared aiming lasers, as well as the standard sights on a detachable handle, but it is also capable of fully-automatic fire, like the M16A1. 

The M4 and M4A1 have been produced by Colt Additionally, the military has begun procuring both the M16A3 and M16A4. The M16A3 and the M16A4 are identical to the M16A2, but both have the modular upper receiver. The M16A3 is capable of fully automatic fire, like the M16A1, while the M16A4 uses the M16A2's three-round burst mechanism.  Additionally, several types of optical sights  have been developed for the modular upper. The new sights include a "red dot," close combat sight, much like civilian IPSC-style competitors use to quickly index to a target and an infrared thermal sight, to allow a soldier to see a target at night from body heat.

Logistics - Interoperability - Common Parts

The M4 Carbine achieves over 80% commonality with the M16A2 Rifle.  The principle variations from the M16A2 are: 

1. Flat Top Receiver with Mil Spec 1913 Picatinny Rail
2. Telescopic 4 Position Synthetic Stock
3. 14.5 inch Barrel with Step Cut for M203 40mm Grenade Launcher Attachment
4. 4 Position Select Fire: Safe - Semi - 3 Shot Burst - Automatic Fire
5. Front Handguard with Rail Interface System (RIS) allows attachment of Optical Devices including ACOG's & Night Vision Optics and Infrared Aiming Lasers with a Forward Pistol Grip.

M4 Carbine Technical Specifications

Name: M4 Carbine 
Finish: Black anodized receiver; black oxide barrel
Action: Gas Operated Magazine Fed Rotating Bolt
Semi - 3 Shot Burst - Full Auto on A4 model
Caliber: 5.56mm (.223 Rem)
Capacity: 30 rounds
Barrel Length: 14.5" with Step Cut*
Overall Length: 29.8 inches to 33 inches
Rifling Twist: Right Hand: 1 turn in 7 inches
Rifling Grooves: 6
Trigger: Smooth
Front Sight: Adjustable
Rear Sight: A2 style 
Adjustable for windage & elevation to 800 meters
Sight Radius: 14.5 inches
Weight: 5.65 lbs. (empty)
Cycle Rate: 700-950 rounds pre minute (rpm)
Special Features: Cartridge case deflector for left handed shooting.
Cleaning kit and sling included. 
Can be field stripped without special tools.

* Step Cut allows mounting of M-203 Grenade Launcher

M4 Sherman Tank: The M4 Sherman was an American tank used during the Second world War. Many varieties were made, but the most common was the M4A3 which weighed 31.57 tones and had a crew of five.  It was fairly thickly armored, up to 108mm and had a 75mm gun plus a co-axial machine gun in a fully traversing turret and an extra ball mounted machine gun in the hull front.  As with the M3 Lee Tank an additional machine gun was usually fitted to the commander's cupola. The M4A3 was powered by a Ford 450bhp V8 engine which gave it a top speed of 42kmph and a range of 160km.

M4A3: see "M4 Sherman"

M5 Stuart Tank: The M5 Stuart is the modified M3 Stuart Tank with a later Cadillac engine which improved the range by 48km.

M5A1: see "M5 Stuart"

M6 Scout: The M6 Scout is An over-under combo gun chambered in .22LR (or .22 Hornet) and .410. It is 32 inches long with an 18 inch long barrel and includes a folding stock. The M6 Scout is marketed by Springfield as a survival rifle.  It is issued to American Air Crews and is integral to the survival evasion and escape equipment packaged in the ejection seat and survival packs for air crew.  It is not designed as a battle field weapon, rather to use for acquiring small game for consumption in a survival situation.

M9: The M9 is a full sized 9mm semi-automatic pistol manufactured by Beretta, and adopted by the American military in place of the M1911.  The M9 is basically the same as the model 92 Beretta.

M11:  The M11 is a medium sized 9mm semi-automatic pistol manufactured by SIG Arms, and adopted by the American military for use by Military Police, CID Investigators, Special Operations Forces and Air Crews as well as for soldiers with hands to small for the large M9 pistol.  The M11 is the same as the SIG model P228 and has a 13+1 capacity.

M13/40: The M13/40 was an Italian Second world war tank of bolted Armor plates, up to 40 mm thick, which were prone to split apart under fire. It was armed with a 47 mm gun and had a top speed of 32 kmph and a range of 200 km.

M14: The m14 is a US automatic rifle developed in the 1950s to replace the Garand. It takes a 7.62mm round from a 20-round box. It has a muzzle velocity of 853 m/s and is sighted to 915m with a cyclic rate of 750 rpm.

M16: The M16 (ArmaLite AR-15) is a US automatic rifle. It takes a .233" round from a 30-round
magazine. It has a muzzle velocity of 991 m/s and is sighted to 458m. It has a cyclic rate of 800 rpm.

M16A2: Assault rifle adopted as a standard weapon by the U.S. Army in 1967. The M16 superseded the M14 rifle. It is gas-operated and has both semi-automatic (i.e., auto-loading) and fully automatic capabilities. Weighing less than 3.6 kg (8 pounds) and equipped with a 20-round or 30-round magazine, the M16 is 99 cm (39 inches) long and fires 5.56-millimetre (.223 caliber) ammunition at the rate of 700-950 rounds per minute.  Both U.S. and South Vietnamese forces used it during the Vietnam War.  Current issue M16A2 models are equipped with 3 position Select Fire; Safe - Semi - and 3 Shot Burst. 

M22 Locust:  The M22 Locust was an American light air-portable tank of the Second World War. It weighed 7.26 tones and was manned by a crew of three and armed with a 37 mm main gun. It had Armor up to 25 mm thick and a top road speed of 56 kmph.

M24 Chaffee: The M24 Chaffee was an American light air-portable tank of the Second World War. It weighed 18.37 tones and was manned by a crew of five. It was armed with a 75 mm main gun and had Armor up to 38 mm thick.  It had a top road speed of 56 kmph.

M29: The M29 is a family of American 81mm mortars.

M29A1: The M29A1 is one of the M29 family. It has a caliber of 81mm and a range of 4,700km. It has a sustained rate of fire of between 4 and 12 rpm.

M47: The M47 (Dragon) is an American infantry anti-tank/assault missile. It has a flight speed of 230mph and a range of 1000m.  It is optically wire guided by the operator.

M/46: The M/46 is the FN designed GP or High Power Pistol manufactured in Denmark.

M48: The M48 Chaparral is an American forward area air-defense missile system.  It launches surface-to-air missiles (SAM) which use infrared homing to target heat emitter guidance. The missiles fly at a speed of mach 2.5 to a ceiling of 2,500m and a range of 4,800m.

M60 Machine Gun: The M60 Machine Gun has been the US Army's general purpose machine gun since 1950.  It fires the standard NATO 7.62 mm round and is used as a general support crew-served weapon. It has a removable barrel which can be easily changed to prevent overheating. The weapon has an integral, folding bipod and can also be mounted on a folding tripod. 

Features: The M60 7.62 mm machine gun is a lightweight, air-cooled, disintegrating metallic link, belt fed, man-portable, tripod & vehicle mounted machine gun designed for ground operations. It is gas operated with fixed headspace and timing which permits rapid changing of barrels.  Associated components: mount, tripod, machine gun, 7.62mm, M122. 

M60 Machine Gun Specifications

Length: 42.4 inches
107.70 centimeters
Weight: 18.75 pounds
8.51 kilograms
Bore Diameter: 7.62 mm
.308 inches / caliber 308
Maximum Effective Range: 3609 feet
1100 meters
Maximum Range: 2.3 miles
3725 meters
Muzzle Velocity: 2800 feet
853 meters per second 
Cyclic Rate:  550 rounds per minute

M60 MAIN BATTLE TANK (MBT): The M60 is a series of American Main Battle Tanks. The M60 design stems from work in armaments developed in 1956 and entered service in 1960. This series of tanks replaced the M-48 Patton Tank entered service in 1960's and with the exception of the United States Marine Corps (Naval Infantry) were replaced by the M-1 Abrams Series in the early 80's. [ MBT = Main Battle Tank ]

M60A3: The M60A3 is an American Main Battle Tank. It was designed in the mid 1950s and entered service in 1960, production ended in 1987. It has a crew of 4, a maximum road speed of 48kph and a 105mm main gun. It carries 63 rounds of APFSDS, HEAT, HEP and WP ammunition and has laser range finding.

M60A5 MBT: The M60A5 is the final version of the M60 Tank series.  It is armed with a 105mm main gun, a 7.62mm coaxial machine gun and a cupola mounted 12.7Mm HMG. It has a top road speed of 48kph. It is manned by a crew of four and carries 63 rounds of main gun ammunition. It is fitted with a laser rangefinder and thermal imaging night sight.  This MBT is still in service with the US Marine Corps.

M61A1 Vulcan: The M61A1 (Vulcan) is a 20mm six-barrel Gatling gun mounted on the M163. It has a muzzle velocity of 1036m/s and fires APT ammunition with Armor penetration of 45mm at 500m and 31mm at 1000m.

M68E1: The Royal Ordnance M68E1 is a British 105mm rifle mounted on M1 MBT and M60A3 MBT. It was developed during the 1950s for use with the Centurion tank. It has a muzzle velocity of 1458m/s firing APFSDS ammunition and Armor penetration of 377mm at 500m and 349mm at 1000m.

M72A2: The M72A2 is an American Light Anti-Tank Weapon (LAW).  It has a caliber of 66mm and a range of 325m.

M72A3: The A3 uses an enhanced warhead and is the replacement for the M72 LAW anti-tank missile.  It lacks a guidance system and is only usable up to 135 meters.

M77: The M77 is a Ruger bolt-action rifle. It is manufactured in various calibers between .22" and .338". It takes a 4-round magazine and is fitted with a receiver for a telescopic sight.

M79: The M79 is an American shotgun styled grenade launcher.  It has a range of 400m and a rate of fire of 5 rpm.

M93: The M93 (fox) is an American reconnaissance vehicle. It carries a crew of 4. It is unarmed and has a top speed of 65mph.

M102: The M102 is an American 105mm caliber light-howitzer. It has a range of 11,500 meters with standard ammunition and 15,100m with rap ammunition.

M106: The M106 is an American mortar carrier comprised of an M113 APC chassis with a hole cut in the roof for a 81mm or 4.2 inch mortar to fire upwards and out of.

M106A2: The M106A2 is a variant of the M106 mortar carrier. It carries a 107mm mortar and 100 rounds of HE and WP ammunition.

M109: The M109 is a series of American self-propelled howitzers. Using the 155mm cannon and shell. 

M109A2: The M109A2 is one of the M109 series. It is armed with a 155mm howitzer and Browning M2 .50 caliber anti-aircraft machine gun.

M113: M113 is a series of American Armored Personnel Carriers (APC). They are lightly armed with a Browning .50 caliber machine gun. They have a top speed of 40mph.  It has been in service since the Vietnam war and carries a crew of 2 plus an 11 man squad. It has a top road speed of 64kmph and a range of 321km. It is armed with a 12.7mm .50 caliber Heavy Machine Gun with an effective range of 2500m.

M113A3: The M113A3 is an American APC. It was designed in the late 1950s and entered service in 1960, the M113A1 upgrade entered service in 1963. It carries a crew of 2 plus a squad of 7 and is armed with a .50 caliber 12.7mm heavy machine gun for which 1200 rounds of ammunition are carried.

M114: The m114 is an American 155mm caliber howitzer series first used during the second world war.  The m114A2 model has a range of 19,300m.

M114A2: see "m114"

M119: The M119 is the American designation for the l119.

M163: see "M163A2"

M163A2: The M163A2 is an American anti-aircraft gun carrier. The M163 is comprised of an M113 APC with an M61A1 Gatling gun mounted on the roof. The A2 version improved the fire control system by integrating the ranging radar with a ballistic computer.

M198: The M198 is an American 155mm towed howitzer with a range of 22,000m with standard ammunition and 30,000m with RAP (Rocket Assisted Projectile) ammunition.

M224: The M224 is an American lightweight company mortar. It has a caliber of 60mm and a range of 3,500 meters.

M230: The M230 is a 30mm chain gun mounted on the AH-64A attack helicopter. It has a muzzle velocity of 790 m/s.

M240: The M240 is an FN Belgian medium machine gun fitted to the M1A1 and M1A2 Main Battle Tank as well as other armored vehicles like the Grizzly and the 6x6 and 8x8 LAV.  It is a .30 caliber air cooled MMG that belt feeds the 7.62mm NATO ammunition with a muzzle velocity of 840 m/s.

M242: The M242 is a 25mm chain gun mounted on M2A1 and M3A1 CFV. It has a muzzle velocity of 1100m/s and fires APDS ammunition with Armor penetration of 27mm at 500m.

M249: The M249 is an American Squad Assault Weapon or SAW.  It has a caliber of 5.56mm like the M16 and a range of 1300m. It has a very high cyclic rate of 950 rounds per minute and a muzzle velocity of 924m/s using a modified steel core ammunition similar to standard M16 ammunition.

M256: The Rheinmetall M256 is a 120mm smoothbore gun mounted on M1A1/A2 MBT and Leopard 2 MBT.  It has a muzzle velocity of 1661m/s firing APFSDS ammunition and an Armor penetration of 399mm at 500m and 368mm at 1000m.

M551 Sheridan: The M551 Sheridan is an American light tank.  It entered service in 1966. It is armed with a 152mm main gun that fires the Shelaylee Missile and a 7.62mm caliber coaxial machine gun and a .50 caliber anti-aircraft machine gun. It has a top speed of 65mph.

M712: The M712 (copperhead) is an American cannon-launched guided projectile. It flies at
supersonic speed and uses laser homing guidance to locate its target. It has a range of up to 10 miles.

M901A2: The M901A2 ITV is the standard anti-tank missile carrier of the American army. It is based upon the M113 chassis with an Emerson elevating turret on top. It carries a crew of 4, is armed with two TOW- 2 launchers and a 7.62mm machine gun on the roof. 12 missiles are carried.

M1911: The official US military designation for the Colt .45 semiautomatic pistol adopted by the US in 1911.   The gun was designed by John Moses Browning, and produced by Colt.  Early use showed that it could be improved and in 1921 the M1911A1 was introduced, which featured a few changes like a recontoured frame, shorter trigger, and a rounded blackstrap.  The M1911A1 remained the standard US military handgun until it was replaced in the 1980s by the Beretta M9.  However, it remains very popular with civilian shooters in the US, and has been modified extensively to update it to conform to more modern theories of handgun usage.  Also called  the 1911.

M1911A1:  The M1911A1 was a .45 inch caliber automatic pistol designed by Browning in 1921 and manufactured by Colt. It had a semi-automatic recoil action and took a 7-round magazine.

M1935A: The M1935A was the standard pistol of the French army during the second World War.  It was a 7.65 mm .32 caliber semi-automatic pistol with a recoil-operation. It took an 8-round magazine.


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