CARBON FIBER: Exceptionally strong and lightweight
synthetic fiber made especially by carbonizing acrylic fiber at high
CARBON 15: AR-15 type rifles
and pistols manufactured by Professional Ordinance Corporation using
carbon fiber composite materials for the upper and lower receiver and
parts of the butt stock and fore grip.
The Carbon 15
Space Age Composites Meet Iron
Carbon Fiber Composite Technology
had its birth in the early 1960's, as the new Aerospace industry
required more advanced materials. More recently, in addition
to areas such as the Space Shuttle and the Stealth Fighter aircraft,
Carbon Fiber Composites are being used for applications such as
"Indy" and "Formula 1" competitive automobiles providing an
advantage over the competition.
Carbon fiber composite technology
made its advent into the firearms industry in 1996 at Professional
Ordnance Corporation, and it is implemented today in the Carbon 15
series of firearms.
CARTRIDGE: A single, complete round
of ammunition. - Commonly misnamed "bullet" it consists of 4 parts.
The Cartridge components are the Bullet, the Case, the Powder and the
Primer. See component detail in the diagram below. Shotgun and Field
Artillery ammunition are typically called shells not cartridges.
Typical Handgun Cartridge
|1. The Primer,
a smaller cup, set in the end of the case, containing a material
which ignites when struck by the firing pin of the firearm.
2. The Powder, a
chemical compound which burns rapidly, producing a mass of gas which
expands, propelling the bullet. Also called Gun Powder.
3. The Case, a metal
tube shaped container of steel, tin or brass which contains the
bullet, the primer and the powder.
4. The Bullet, a
projectile normally made of lead and which may be coated with a thin
jacket of copper.
CARTRIDGE, CENTER FIRE: Any
cartridge intended for use in rifle, pistols, and revolvers that has its
primer central to the axis at the head of the case. Note: Most cartridges,
including shot shells, are center fire with the exception of 22 caliber
rim fire ammunition. If you were to look at the bottom of a center fire
cartridge, you would see a small circle in the middle of the base, hence,
"center fire." There are a few rim fire ammunition calibers besides the
22, but they are rare and not widely available.
Any cartridge or shot shell that is
larger, contains more shot, or produces a higher velocity than standard
cartridges or shot shells of a given caliber or gauge.
CARTRIDGE, RIM FIRE:
A cartridge containing the priming
mixture in the rim of the base, usually a 22 caliber.
BORE: A general term
that refers to rim fire cartridges. Normally 22 caliber ammunition used
for target shooting, plinking, and small game hunting.
of cartridges or rounds of ammunition a firearm will hold.
CASE, CASING: The metal, plastic
or paper container which holds all of the components of a round of
ammunition. The envelope (container) of a cartridge. For rifles and
handguns it is usually of brass or other metal; for shotguns it is usually
of paper or plastic with a metal head and is more often called a "shell."
Case 2: The case is the capped metal cylinder that holds all of the other
parts together. Most often the case is made of brass. When a cartridge has
been fired, the bullet leaves the gun through the barrel, and the case
remains behind. It is now a "spent" or empty case, and is commonly
referred to simply as "brass". Shooters who reload their own ammunition
place a certain value on brass, and you are generally expected to clean up
your own brass when you are finished shooting.
CASE NECK BRUSH: The
metal brush and handle used to clean the inside of case necks.
CASE TRIMMER: A device used to remove excess material
from a case mouth. Metallic cases stretch after extensive reloading and
firing because the brass flows forward. These cases must be trimmed back.
CASE TRIMMER PILOT: The pilot guides the cutting portion
of a case trimmer by fitting inside the neck of the case to be trimmed.
CAST BULLET: Bullets for center fire rifle or pistol
which are cast from lead alloy. Muzzle loading projectiles and shotgun
slugs are cast in pure lead.
CCL: Acronym for Concealed Carry
License, as in CCL permit or CCL holster. a.k.a. CCW.
Abbreviation for Concealed Carry Weapon, as in CCW permit or CCW holster.
- CENTER FIRE: Term used to indicate and describe a type of ammunition
cartridge with its primer located in the center of the base of the case.
Center fire can also be written Center Fire.
CENTER FIRE CARTRIDGE:
A design of ammunition in which the primer is centrally located
in the base of the cartridge case. Center fire cartridge cases are
the most common form of ammunition and are generally reusable. Most
modern center fire cartridge cases are made of brass or a brass alloy.
Center fire cartridges can be rimmed as indicated below, or rimless.
The rim is designed to help with extraction of the spent cartridge.
Center fire cartridges can also be belted or non-belted. Normally,
standard cartridges are non-belted and magnum loads use
Center fire can also be written Center Fire.
Typical Center Fire Cartridge
CENTER FIRE PISTOL FOR
INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION: is similar to the pistol used in NRA
domestic competition. The trigger pull is three pounds as compared to the
NRA requirement of 2 1/2 pounds. Caliber .38 is the normal size used.
MASS: The center of a target. On human style targets the
area in the center of the chest or torso. Targets should be engaged
"Center of Mass" to ensure the best chance of a hit. Abbreviated COM
and pronounced Com.
CETME: Acronym for
Spain's "Centro de Estudios Tecnicos de Materiales Especiales" or in
English (Special Materials Technical Studies Center) which was formed in
for Center Fire.
CHAMBER: That part of the bore
at the breech which is formed to accept and support the loaded cartridge.
The rear part of the barrel that is formed to accept the cartridge to be
fired. A revolver employs a multi-chambered rotating cylinder separated
from the stationary barrel.
CHAMBER, HANDGUN: The chamber of
the handgun is located directly behind the rifled portion of the barrel
and holds the cartridge during discharge. On pistols, there is a single
chamber (an integral portion of the barrel), and the empty casing must be
removed and replaced with a new cartridge before another shot can be
fired. Depending on the mechanism of action, this process is either done
automatically (semi-automatic pistols) or manually (Derringers and some
single shot competition style target pistols). In contrast, revolvers
contain multiple chambers (that are NOT an integral part of the barrel),
located in the cylinder, each holding a single cartridge, which rotate or
revolve into the firing position behind a single barrel.
CHAMBER INSERT: A
safety device to prevent unauthorized use of a revolver. Chamber
inserts differ from barrel inserts in that they are placed directly into
the chamber rather than inserted through the barrel. They are designed to
hold the action in an open position.
Also called THROAT, is that area in the barrel that is directly forward of
the chamber and that tapers to bore diameter.
CHAMFER: To ream a
taper on the inside of a case mouth.
CHARCOAL COLOR CASEHARDENING:
A method of hardening steel and iron while imparting to it colorful swirls
as well as surface figure. Metal is heated by means of animal
charcoal to 800-900° C, then plunged into cold water.
CHARGE: The amount of
powder used in the case at each loading. Also refers to the amount of shot
used in a shot shell.
functional decoration consisting of pointed pyramids cut into the wood or
metal, generally applied to the front strap of the pistol grip and to the
forend or forearm areas of a rifle stock affording better grip adhesion,
handling and control. Checkering is measured in LPI or lines per
inch. Typical checkering is either 20 or 30 LPI on handguns
and rifles. For information on checkering see the detail box
Checkering Patterns & Cutting Tools
Wrap-around or side
panel patterns checkering and density of the checkering is typically
left to the owners discretion and person preference. Two kinds
of cutters are used namely:
90 degree cutter -
the standard side panel checkering is usually cut is 18 or 20 lpi
(lines per inch). Seen below is pattern 1 and 2. The wrap-around
patterns are cut in 20 or 22 lpi seen in image as 3 to 6.
60 degree cutter -
this style allows a higher density lpi and is cut in 22 flat top, 24
or 26 lpi for patterns 3 to 6. Pattern 7 is cut in 26 or 28 lpi. The
lpi specified also depends on the quality of the wood selected and
density of the grain.
CHIEF RANGE OFFICER: The person in charge of the Range
Officers on a shooting range or in a shooting competition.
1. A constriction or narrowing at or near the muzzle end of a
shotgun barrel that affects shot dispersion. 2: The
constriction in the muzzle end of a shotgun bore by means of which control
is exerted upon the shot charge in order to throw its pellets into a
definite area or predetermined concentration. Degree of choke is
measured by the approximate percentage of pellets in a shot charge which
hit within a 30 inch circle at 40 yards. For example with a "Full
Choke" 65 to 75% of the pellets will hit in a 30 inch circle at 40 yards.
See choke types below.
FULL - MODIFIED - IMPROVED CYLINDER
The narrowing found at the muzzle end of most
shotgun barrels is called a choke. The choke controls the shot
pattern and determines at what distance the shotgun will be most
effective. Effectiveness is determined by the approximate
number or the percentage of the shot shell pellets that hit in the
target area at a specified distance. Chokes and shot patterns
are calibrated by shooting a 30 inch circular target at a distance
of 40 yards. Should you need fewer or less of the pellets in a
specified area at other distances simply conduct the test at your
How a Shotgun Choke works
Just as the nozzle on a garden hose controls
the spray of water, the choke of a shotgun barrel controls the
spread of the shot. This shot spread is called the "pattern".
From the tightest to the widest spread, chokes are described as
"full", "modified" and "improved cylinder". A gun that
has no choke is called a "cylinder bore".
Tight constriction for dense pattern (approximately 70% of
a shell's total pellets in a 30" circle at 40 yards). Best for trap
shooting, pass shooting waterfowl, turkey hunting and shooting
Less constriction than full choke (approximately 60% of a
shell's total pellets in a 30" circle at 40 yards). Excellent
for all-around hunting of waterfowl, long-range flushing upland
birds (such as late-season pheasant and sharp tail grouse) as well
as other small game. Also used for trap shooting.
Improved Cylinder Choke
Even less constriction than modified (approximately 50% of
a shell's total pellets in a 30" circle at 40 yards). Ideal
for close-in small game shooting, upland bird hunting (such as
quail, grouse and pheasant) as well as hunting waterfowl close over
decoys. Rifled slugs also perform very well from this choke.
The following table gives the
accepted "shot in circle" percentage obtained with various chokes.
** Percentage indicates
approximate percentage (%) of a shotgun shell's total
pellets or shot, that will hit inside a 30 inch circle placed 40
yards from the firing line.
CHRONOGRAPH: An instrument used to measure the velocity of a
projectile. As velocity is one of the variables in determining
bullet performance a chronograph is used to determine the speed or
velocity of the projectile.
CIWS: Acronym for
Pronounced [ `Sea Whiz ].
CLASS 2 SOT: Firearms
manufacturers Special Occupational Tax or "Special Occupational Taxpayer).
Specifically the Class 2 SOT is the type of Special Occupational Tax paid
by firearms manufacturers and those who make NFA (National Firearms Act)
items including sound suppressors and machine guns. Holders / payers of
the Class 2 SOT can make or manufacturer machine guns, silencers,
suppressors, short rifles, short shotguns and AOW (Any Other Weapon) with
out paying a tax for each item made. A Class 2 SOT can have weapons
transferred to them tax free, from other SOT's. They must have also have a
type 07 or type 10 Federal Firearms License or FFL. Class 2 SOT's do not
need to ask prior permission of BATF to make a weapon. They are required
to notify BATF of the making / manufacturing of a firearm or NFA item
within 24 hours of it manufacturer by filing BATF Form 2 with the ATF. For
more information on NFA Weapons - Machine Guns -Silencers and SOT
categories, please see the NFA FAQ.
CLASS 2 MANUFACTURER: Term used
to describe a Class 2 SOT (Special Occupational Taxpayer). Also called a
Class 2 Dealer. See Class 2 SOT Above. A Class 2 SOT costs $1000 a
year, or $500 per year for a small manufacturer who does less than
$500,000 in gross receipts in their manufacturing business. One must also
have the appropriate FFL (Federal Firearms License) to engage in the
specific firearms manufacturing activity. This is because most NFA weapons
are also title 1 weapons, and thus fall under both the law regulating
Title 1 Firearms, the Gun Control Act or GCA and for Title 2 (Class 3)
Firearms, the National Firearms Act of 1934 or NFA-34, so both separate
regulation must be complied with. As with the privacy of SOT Registry
information and transfer information, SOT status is protected tax
information, and ATF can not release lists of SOT holders, as they can
with FFL holders.
CLASS 3 ITEM:
CLASS 3 DEALER:
CLASS 3 SOT: A Class 3 SOT costs
$500 a year, due each July 1.
CLASSIC SAFETY POSITION: A traditional rifle safety where
the safety has only two (2) positions, Safe and Fire, without the Loading
position found on many fine arms and modern rifle safety systems.
Classic or Classical Safeties typically do not incorporate a separate
firing pin safety or firing pin disconnect system. The "Safe
Loading" position is the middle position and allows the shooter to work
the action and open the bolt while the trigger is in "Safe" and
CLICKS: Term used for adjustment
increment on an optical scope. The amount of change is measured by
"clicks" turned. Typical Optical Rifle Scopes move 1/4 MOA (
Minute of Angle ) per click,
but some adjust to 1/8 MOA and others like ACOG's as specified in the
CLOSE-IN-WEAPONS-SYSTEM (CIWS): Weapons system employed on
military surface ships that typically includes a fire direction radar and
a high speed, high rate of fire Gatling style gun. The CIWS
(Pronounced `See-wiz) is used as a close in, last line of defense
anti-missiles defensive system that fires a hail of projectiles at
incoming anti-ship missiles (ASM). Most American Navy surface
combatants use the Phalanx System
with an automated 20 millimeter multi-barreled cannon, similar to
the Vulcan. On some Main Battle Tanks (MBT's) a CIWS is employed
that launches small strips of diffusing material, similar to aluminum
foil, used to confuse or blind targeting radar and anti-tank guided
CLIP: A device for holding a
group of cartridges. Typically a Clip is used to charge, load or feed the
Magazine. The terms "Clip and Magazine" are NOT interchangeable in
strict technical usage, however semantic wars have been fought over the
word, with some insisting it is not a synonym for "magazine." Like
it or not, right or wrong, for 80 years the term CLIP has been used by
many gun manufacturers and the USMC. The rest of the military services use
the term magazine. There is no argument that it can also mean a separate
device for holding and transferring a group of cartridges to a fixed or
detachable magazine or as a device inserted with cartridges into the
mechanism of a firearm becoming, in effect, part of that mechanism.
However real "Gun Folk" cringe at the miss use of the term Clip for
Magazine. See Clip definition 2 below.
CLIP 2: A device used to rapidly
load a magazine. "Clip" is often used to refer to a magazine, but
this is an improper use of the term. There are two kinds of clips:
Stripper clips and en bloc clips:
Stripper clips hold 5 to 10 rounds of
ammunition by their bases. To load the magazine, the clip is
placed in a guide which is either a part of the gun, or a separate guide
which slips onto the magazine. Weapons which may be loaded from
stripper clips include the Lee-Enfield series of rifles, Mosin-Nagant
Rifles, the M1903 Springfield, and the Mauser 1898. The Steyr-Hahn
M1911 and Mauser "Broom Handle" semiautomatic pistols also use stripper
clips. Stripper clips are also called "chargers."
En bloc clips hold the cartridges
together by their bases and their bodies; the clip and the rounds are
inserted into the magazine as a unit. When the last round is
loaded, the clip is automatically ejected from the magazine.
Weapons loaded with en bloc clips include the Steyr-Mannlicher straight
pull bolt action, the Mannlicher-Carcano rifles, and the US M1 Garand.
(In the M1, the clip is ejected up after the last round is fired.)
COCK: To ready the mechanism of
a gun for firing, as in "to cock the hammer." Was noun used to name
the hammer in former times, as the hammer of an old matchlock rifle looked
like a cock (or a male chickens) head.
COCKING INDICATOR: Any
device which the act of cocking a gun moves into a position where it may
be seen or felt in order to notify the shooter that the gun is cocked.
Typical examples are the pins found on some high-grade hammerless shotguns
which protrude slightly when they are cocked, and also the exposed cocking
knobs on bolt-action rifles. Exposed hammers found on some rifles
and pistols are also considered cocking indicators.
Abbreviation for Course of Fire.
COLD RANGE: 1. A
range that does not allow shooters to carry loaded weapons away from the
firing line. For safety and liability reasons, this is the usual
practice. The vast majority of ranges in the US are cold ranges. 2.
When the no one is touching their weapon (and no weapons are loaded) and
people may be downrange, there is a cold range. At events,
declaring the range "cold" or "hot" is at the discretion of the range
officer (RO). Once the RO has called the range hot, no one should
pass the firing line. The range is declared "Cold" after all
firearms are cleared to allow target pasting and administration of the
range and targets.
COLOR CASE HARDENING: A method
of hardening steel and iron while imparting colorful swirls as well as
surfaces figure. Normally, the desired metal parts are put in a
crucible packed with a mixture of charcoal and finely ground animal bone
to temperatures in the 800 degree C - 900 degree C range, after which they
are slowly cooled, and then submerged into cold water.
COLT, SAMUEL: Lived
1814-62, American inventor; born in Hartford, Conn. His revolving breech
pistol (patented 1835-36) was one of the standard small arms of the world
in the last half of the 19th century. Colt also invented a submarine
battery used in harbor defense and a submarine telegraph cable. There is a
famous saying that goes "God created man... Sam Colt made them equal".
Great American Inventor & Gun Maker
|Samuel Colt was born in
Eighteen Fourteen (1814) and died in Eighteen Sixty-two
(1862). He only lived to be Forty-Seven but his impact on
firearms, military weapons and warfare is still present even
in today's world, years after his time. Sam Colt shaped
the way the nation fought its wars and the way individuals
protected themselves, with his invention of a firearm
capable of firing multiple times without reloading. The
world would not be the same place without him.
Samuel Colt was born in Hartford Connecticut;
he had the inventor's charm even as a child. He was sent to boarding
school after he conducted a demonstration with an explosive mine
that showered mud and debris all over the school. Then, at the
boarding school, Amherst Academy, another fire related incident
caused the school to catch on fire, resulting in extensive damage.
The young Sam Colt was then again expelled from school.
Colt's Wooden Revolver
|Samuel Colt was sent into a sailors
apprenticeship in 1830, at the age 16. He was on a
voyage to India on the ship Corvo, when he noticed certain
characteristics about the workings of the ships wheel.
The ship's wheel was always locked in place with a clutch
mechanism, no matter how far it was turned. With his
creative mind, he thought that the same principal could be
applied to a firearm. Colt then carved a wooden model of
this now famous revolving firearm.
This wooden model was the first Colt ever
made. In Eighteen Thirty-five (1835) Colt perfected the Colt
Revolver and in Eighteen Thirty-six (1836) he received a patent.
This firearm had a revolving cylinder with room for five to six
bullets. It was operated by cocking the hammer which turned
the cylinder. When the cylinder turned it aligned an
ammunition cartridge with the barrel. The trigger was pulled
and the gun fired a single shot. Pulling the trigger released
the hammer which had a striking mechanism that hit the primer of the
cartridge. By again cocking or pulling the hammer to the rear,
the process was repeated until the cylinder was empty. In the
same year, Colt produced 3 new revolvers and two rifles.
The Colt revolver models were: The pocket and
the belt and holster. The two rifles had the same mechanism as the
pistols with revolving cylinders. In 1839 Colt mad a carbine rifle.
Colt continued making the guns, but in a time of peace, there was
not a high demand for his products. With all the models he had
made the orders never exceeded 100. So Colts company, Colt's Patent
Arms Manufacturing Company, went bankrupt in 1842. Without his
business to run he devoted his time to creating electrically
discharged underwater explosives and mines to sell to the
government. He also worked on waterproof ammunition for
military and hunting application. In association with Samuel
Morse, he created the telegraph line.
During 1845, Texas Rangers engaged in battle
with hostile Indians. The Colt revolvers they were using at
the time proved very effective in defeating the Indians. Their
combat effectiveness was greatly enhanced because of their
rapid-fire capability, and the ability to quickly reload the
cylinder. The U.S. War Department was impressed and ordered
several Colt Revolvers. In 1846 the Mexican American War
began. Colt worked with U.S. Army Captain Samuel H. Walker on
the development of a more powerful revolver. An order for 1000
of his, new more powerful, rapid firing revolvers was placed by the
U.S. Ordinance Department.
Early Colt Revolvers
Patterson Colt Revolver
Colt Legend Revolver
These new revolvers where called the "Walker
Colt". Samuel Colt was producing firearms and making
money, but he did not have his own factory. He got in touch
with Eli Whitney Jr., son of Eli Whitney, the inventor of the cotton
gin. The order was sent out in 1847. He then began to build
his own factory. In 1851, he made leaps that would eventually
do nothing but help his business.
Sam Colt was the first American manufacturer
to build a plant in England. He also purchased 250 acres of
land called the South Meadows. This land was constantly
flooded and sold for a low price. Colt built a two mile long
dike and he then built a factory that was protected from the rivers
waters. This factory was on the cutting edge of manufacturing
technology. The factory put out 5000 handguns in the first year of
Then Colt, with his new machinery focused on
interchangeable parts. Eighty percent of those parts came from the
state of the art machinery. These were the top of the line
manufacturing machines available in the world. The precision
parts in the colt revolvers were made by this machinery. Samuel Colt
was proud of this when he said " There is nothing that can't be
produced my the machine."
In 1855 Colt founded the firm" Colt's Patent
Fire Arms Mfg. Co.". It was founded in Connecticut with 10,000
shares of stock. Colt claimed 9,996 shares. He gave one share
to each of his businesses associates. In 1856 the company was
producing 150 guns a day. The Colt firearm's reputation of
exceptional quality quickly spread throughout the world. This
made Samuel Colt one of the top ten wealthiest businessmen in the
U.S. More firearms were needed; Colt expanded his engraving
department. He was a great fan of engraving and gold inlay on
his firearms and thought it would be a good idea to make it more
available to the public.
Colt created show guns that were beautifully
engraved with lots of gold inlay. His guns won prizes at world trade
fairs, constantly. Colt's company sold firearms through
traveling salesmen. They were actually wholesalers that sold large
quantities of guns to resellers and shop keepers. They also
took orders from the rich and famous, these orders were taken
directly to the factory. Samuel Colt was soon recognized for
being one of the earliest American manufactures to realize the
effectiveness of marketing.
Sam Colt built his house, Armsmear; it was one
of the greatest houses ever built. In 1860, Sam Colts health
began to fail. The country was heading towards civil war. Before war
was declared, Colt shipped his products to the southern states. As
soon as war broke out, Colt stopped shipment to the C.S.A. and was
supplying firearms exclusively to the Union. The Colt Armory was
producing a huge amount of weapons, and was running at full
capacity. Colt was making $250,000 dollars a year by 1861.
Samuel Colt died January 10, 1862. He was only
47. He was worth $15 million dollars. Which today equals about $300
million dollars. In his life he produced over 400,000 firearms. The
company was then under the control of his immediate family until
COM: Abbreviation for Center of Mass. Usage would be
"She got a good COM hit" or "One should aim for COM on all targets."
COMB: The portion of
the rifle or shotgun stock on which the shooter's cheek rests.
Sights suitable for combat. Term usually refers to Notch and Post
style sights and night sights and excludes large optical sights and
scopes. Combat sights are easy to acquire, line up on the target and
use quickly in an emergent situation. The best combat sights are
nights sights with tritium inserts. 85% of the defensive uses of a
firearm occur at night or in low light conditions. I consider
another important variable of effective combat sights to be a sufficient
size and of a design that facilitates the ability to use the rear sight
body to rack the slide on an automatic pistol. In may emergency
situations you may have to rack the slide with only one hand. If the
rear sight are suitable for combat you can use the rear sight to rack the
slide. You may be wounded or your other hand may be holding a flash
light or the assailant.
A generic reference to a
shooting sport (generally using handguns) that seeks to simulate the use
of small arms as an instrument of personal protection in a tactical or
combat scenario. Depending on the particular type of match,
the rules and equipment used it may or may not provide a realistic
simulation. It is often used for training purposes. In real
armed military combat, handguns are rarely used.
Generally a break open shotgun configuration fitted with at least one
shotgun barrel and one rifle barrel. Such guns may be encountered
with either two or three barrels, and less frequently with as many as four
or five, and have been known to chamber for as many as four different
COMPENSATED: Refers to a gun with a
compensator, or more specifically a barrel, that has vent holes to allow
gas to escape. Since the holes are drilled on the upper side of the
barrel the escaping gas pushes the gun downward. This downward action
compensates for the muzzle flip that tends to occur when a gun is fired.
recoil-reducing device which mounts on the muzzle of a gun to deflect part
of the powder gases up and rearward. Also called a "muzzle
brake" or "comp" as in a comp gun.
A charge of powder which so nearly fills
the case that it is compressed when the bullet is seated.
COMPRESSED CHARGE: A
charge of powder which so nearly fills the case that it is compressed when
the bullet is seated. Compressed charges can increase the muzzle
velocity of certain loads, but there is a point of diminishing returns as
all of the powder may not be able to burn in the specified load.
Hand loads are not as simple as increase the powder, increase the speed of
the bullet. Compressed Charges can result in very high and often
dangerous chamber pressure. Please consult your reloading guide and
COMPONENTS: Any of the various parts which go into the
making of a cartridge. Also the parts used to make up a firearm.
CONCEALED CARRY PERMIT
(LICENSE): A permit to "Carry a Concealed Weapon" or CCW.
In some states also called CCL. A permit or license issued by a
designated authority (a state, county, or city official) authorizing a
citizen to carry a concealed weapon. CCW laws vary greatly
from state to state. In some states practices regarding the issuance
and enforcement varies greatly between different cities and counties.
Also refereed to as a CCW or CCL. See below for details.
License and Permits
31 states now have Right To Carry
laws, respecting the fundamental individual right of self-defense by
allowing people to carry firearms for protection against criminals.
127 million Americans, nearly half the U.S. population, including
60% of handgun owners, live in Right To Carry states.
With over 20,000 "gun control"
laws on the books in America, there are two challenges facing every
gun owner. First, you owe it to yourself to become familiar
with the federal laws on gun ownership. Only by knowing the
laws can you avoid innocently breaking one.
Second, while federal legislation receives much more media
attention, state legislatures and city councils make many more
decisions regarding your right to own and carry firearms. NRA
members and all gun owners must take extra care to be aware of
anti-gun laws and ordinances at the state and local levels.
In general, states fall into
one of the following categories:
No Permit Required:
Civilians may carry a concealed weapon without applying for any
special permit. (There may still be restrictions on who can carry
and when or where guns may be carried.)
Right to Carry / Shall Issue: There
is a permit process, usually requiring a fee, a background check,
and training. However, a permit will be issued when the
requirements of the permit process are met. In a "Shall
Issue" state it is up to the state to prove you are not qualified
to have a CCW/CCL. Currently more than 30 of the states in
America are in this category, they are shown in blue above.
Limited Issue / May Issue: There is a permit
process, usually requiring a fee, a background check, and
training. However, a permit will be issued only when the issuing
authority determines that there is good cause. Local
officials often have very different interpretations regarding when
permits should be issued in such states. California and the
12 states shown in yellow above are currently in this category.
Non Issue / Don’t Issue: States that do
not offer CCW' s under any circumstances. The 7 states shown
in red above are in this category. Some of these states have "Open
Concealed Carry Terms &
CCL: Concealed Carry
CCH: Concealed Carry
CCI: Concealed Carry
Instructor / Instruction.
CCT: Concealed Carry
Training / Trainer.
CCW: Concealed Carry
Weapon, as in CCW Permit.
CCP: Concealed Carry
Paddle (Paddle style holster).
same as "shall issue" or have provisions for a less restrictive
and discretionary permit system.
NICS: National Instant
Check System. Background check system implemented in
November 1998 and used in 24 states for all gun purchases and in
11 additional states for handgun purchases. [States that had
in place or implemented an equal to, or more stringent background
check system are exempt from the Federal system or "NICS". ]
NRA: National Rifle
NRA-ILA : National Rifle
Association (NRA) Institute for Legislative Action.
defining laws that allow any person with a valid firearm carrying
permit or license, issued by a state, to carry a firearm in
another state. Many states currently have reciprocity for
states that have similar standards of issue and licensing.
in states that issue firearm carry permits, each state's laws
governing where firearms may be carried would apply within its own
borders. Federal legislation is pending that would allow
For specific information
regarding your states firearm laws contact your local Sheriff or NRA
Affiliated Gun Club. An online listing is also available from
the NRA-ILA web: Click Here and
then click on Firearms Laws on the right hand column.
Information Courtesy of:
NRA Institute for Legislative Action
11250 Waples Mill Road
Fairfax, Virginia 22030
Additional information on
everything Concealed Carry is online at URL:
CONDITION OF READINESS: Term used to define the 5 different
readiness states or "Cary Methods" when using a classic 1911-pattern
single action automatic pistol. A detailed explanation and the
advantages and disadvantages of the conditions are listed in the table
- The Five Conditions of Readiness
Mr. Jeff Cooper, the so called guru of the 1911,
originated and popularized the "Condition" system to define the state
of readiness of the 1911-pattern semi-automatic pistol.
The 5 Conditions are:
Condition 0 -
A round is in the chamber, hammer is
cocked, and the safety is off.
- Also known as "cocked and locked," means a round is in the chamber,
the hammer is cocked, and the manual thumb safety on the side of the
frame is applied.
- A round is in the chamber and the hammer is down.
- The chamber is empty and hammer is down with a charged magazine in
Condition 4 -
The chamber is empty, hammer is down and no magazine is in the gun.
Condition Zero should only be used
when one is ready to engage targets or fire the pistol. Many
1911-patern pistol will fire if dropped or if the hammer is hit or
rubbed in Condition Zero.
Condition One is the mode of
readiness preferred and recommended by the "experts". Generally
speaking, Condition One offers the best balance of readiness and
safety. Its biggest drawback is that it looks scary to people who
don't understand the operation and safety features of the Single
Action Semi-Automatic pistol. Decocking this type of handgun is still
a dangerous practice and many of the so-called experts have been in
condition one only to look down and notice that the manual safety was
inadvertently disengaged making the gun in Condition Zero. There are
thousands of police reports, including many involving police officers,
where the shooter/victim dropped the hammer on a loaded chamber in an
attempt to "safe" their M-1911 style pistol and "accidentally"
discharged a flaming hot .45 ACP round into themselves or a innocent
Condition Two is problematic for
several reasons, and is the source of more negligent discharges than
the other conditions. When you rack the slide to chamber a round in
the 1911, the hammer is cocked and the manual safety is off. There is
no way to avoid this with the 1911 design. In order to lower the
hammer, the trigger must be pulled and the hammer lowered slowly with
the thumb onto the firing pin, the end of which is only a few
millimeters away from the primer of a live round. Should the thumb
slip, the hammer would drop and fire the gun. Not only would a round
be launched in circumstances which would be at best embarrassing and
possibly tragic, but also the thumb would be behind the slide as it
cycled, resulting in serious injury to the hand. A second problem with
this condition is that the true 1911A1 does not have a firing pin
block and an impact on the hammer which is resting on the firing pin
could conceivably cause the gun to fire, although actual instances of
this are virtually nonexistent. Finally, in order to fire the gun, the
hammer must be manually cocked, again with the thumb. In an emergency
situation, this adds another opportunity for something to go wrong and
slows the acquisition of the sight picture.
Condition Three adds a degree of
"insurance" against an accidental discharge since there is no round in
the chamber. To bring the gun into action from the holster, the pistol
must be drawn and the slide racked as the pistol is brought to bear on
the target. This draw is usually called "the Israeli draw" since it is
taught by Israeli security and defense forces. Some of the real expert
trainers can do an Israeli draw faster than most of us can do a simple
draw, but for most of us, the Israeli draw adds a degree of
complexity, an extra step, and an opening for mistakes in the process
of getting the front sight onto the target.
In my simple mind all of these safe carry and
employment problems along with low magazine capacity and other
problems that are typical of the 19911-patern pistol is why most armed
professionals and our military have transitioned to modern,
traditional double action / single action (DA/SA) automatic pistols
like those made by SIG-Sauer, Beretta and Glock. There is still
a zealous and very vocal group of 1911 shooters and supporters.
I jokingly refer to them as "The Cult of Colt". To the 911 Cult,
criticizing their beloved 1911 is akin to talking about their mothers
or quashing their most deeply held religious beliefs. I remind them
(often) that "one can not make up for a small brain with a big
CONE: The slope of the forward end of the chamber of a shotgun
which decreases the chamber diameter to bore diameter. Also called a
COP KILLER BULLET: A
non-technical term used to describe politically unpopular defensive
ammunition. The term "Cop Killer Bullet" is an inflammatory phrase
having neither historical basis or a legal or technically defined meaning.
For the record, any bullet is capable of killing a police officer or any
other human being. The term was used by anti-gun proponents in the
late 1980's and early 1990's to vilify and then restrict certain types of
politically unpopular ammunition. The ammunition in question was in
fact a defensive round with an effective hollow point bullet very similar
to ammunition that has been commercially available for over 40
years. The anti-gun lobby stated falsely that the Cop Killer Bullets
were capable of defeating or penetrating body armor or so called "bullet
proof vests" which was untrue. In fact the so called "Cop Killer
Bullets" were renamed and repackaged and are still commercially available
today. If anything all the political hoopla only served to make them
more popular and more common.
COPPER FOULING: The partial
obstruction and loss of accuracy caused by accumulated metal residue in
the barrel of a gun. Copper fouling is the same as leading or lead
fouling, but is caused from the copper covering on copper jacketed
bullets. The fouling occurs when the metal particles fill in the
grooves of a rifled barrel, which make the rifle shoot more like a smooth
bore. Accuracy is lost because the fouled riffling is not imparting
adequate spin and stability on the projectile. Several chemicals are
available to remove both lead and copper from the barrel of a gun.
chemical used as propellant. Smokeless powder composed of
nitroglycerin, guncotton, and a petroleum substance usually gelatinized by
addition of acetone and pressed into cords resembling brown twine.
CORTO: Italian for
"short." Seen as part of a cartridge designation. E.g., 9mm
Corto, which is the same as the .380 ACP or the German 9mm Kurz.
CORROSION: The eating
away of the bore by rust or chemical action.
COURSE OF FIRE:
A term used to describe a stage in competitive shooting matches. A
course of fire or COF may involve some set of standard exercises or may
involve a scenario designed to simulate a real world situation. The
description of the COF would describe all the targets relative position on
the course and the shooters actions at each target. It also
specifies and safety precautions or restrictions applicable in that stage
of competition. A course of fire can be made up of one or more
CRANE: In a
modern solid-frame, swing out revolver, the U-shaped yoke on which the
cylinder rotates, and which holds the cylinder in the frame.
CREEDMOOR: Famous rifle
range on Long Island New York established by the fledgling National Rifle
Association in 1873 with appropriations from
the New York Legislature. The name is synonymous with long range shooting
competition using black powder rifles. Competitions at Creedmoor gave
birth to marksmanship as an amusement and to shooting as a sport without
military implications in the United States. Creedmoor Matches were the
forerunner of the Palma Matches held today. For more information read "The
Story of Creedmoor" written by David
in the detail box below.
The Story of Creedmoor
by David Minshall
Published by: Long Range Muzzle Loader - Used with permission.
"At the close of the Franco-Prussian
war of 1870-71, the American rifle movement took its rise in a
series of articles, written for the only military paper of the
country, by a militia officer. They appeared in the "Army and Navy
Journal," and were written by Mr. George W. Wingate, a young lawyer
of New York City. The history of the movement from the time when
Wingate first published his articles to the time of the triumphs of
Creedmoor and Dollymount is one of persistent effort against
universal apathy. The only class that encouraged the attempt at
first was the citizen soldiery of a single city, and even their
support was by no means general. The first meeting for the formation
of a rifle club was abortive, from the lack of sufficient numbers to
constitute a legal quorum, and it was only on a second attempt that
the club was formed. The first President of the "National Rifle
Association," as it was called, was General Ambrose E. Burnside, who
made a very good figure-head, but under whose leadership nothing was
accomplished. It was not till the second year of its existence that
any real progress was made. Then, by the efforts of the new
President, Colonel Church of the "Army and Navy Journal," and the
Secretary, Mr. George W. Wingate, the New York Legislature of 1872
was induced to appropriate $25,000 for the purchase of a range near
New York city, the Association agreeing to raise $5,000 on its
part." [The Story of Creedmoor, Frederick Whittaker, 1876]
Much effort went in to the search for
a suitable site for the new range in the vicinity of New York to no
avail. Finally the search turned to the plains of Long Island. Here
the NRA bought a 70 acre site, at one time owned by a farmer named
Creed. Colonel Henry G. Shaw, a member of the NRA range committee,
is credited with coining the word "Creed-moor" having observed the
similarities of the site with the moorland of Great Britain.
Creedmoor was opened in the spring of
1873 and was almost exclusively used by National Guardsmen, with
shooting mostly at short range. The public interest in Creedmoor was
slight, and the shooting poor when compared with that of the
Volunteers in Great Britain. Contests and rifles there during 1873
were almost exclusively military, confined to members of the militia
or men shooting with their rifles. The few "any rifle" competitions
were offhand at 200 yards. The first season, however, witnessed the
formation of a small club of enthusiasts, an offshoot of the parent
association. George W. Wingate, with a few others, organized the
"Amateur Club" of New York City. This club was designed to cultivate
the use of the sporting rifle, and to develop marksmanship as an
amusement, with no ulterior military purpose. This being the case,
the Amateur Club speedily became a thriving institution, and many
men joined it who would never have been caught in a militia
A challenge addressed to American
riflemen in the winter of 1873 resulted in a match that brought the
American rifle movement to the attention of the public. Since 1862
England and Scotland had been competing at Wimbledon for the Elcho
Shield, the match comprising teams of eight, each man firing fifteen
shots at 800, 900 and 1000 yards. In 1865 Ireland was first
permitted to enter the match, and in 1873 took the Elcho Shield for
the first time. Elated with their success, the Irish marksmen,
issued a challenge to American riflemen to decide the 'championship
of the world.' The Irish would all use Rigby muzzle-loaders and the
Americans be required to use arms of US manufacture. The Amateur
Club on behalf of the riflemen of America accepted this challenge.
Despite the invitation for riflemen
to contest for places in the American team being published in daily
papers over the United States, response was scanty. In the end it
became clear that the Amateur Club would have to fight
single-handed. The final team of six, three using Remington and
three using Sharps breechloaders began to practice in earnest. They
monitored their progress by calculating average scores for the Elcho
Shield winners, and comparing their own.
The eventful day arrived, and on 26
September 1874 Creedmoor witnessed a crowd of over five thousand
people all come to see the grand match. At 800 yards the Americans
had a good lead. The Irish gained on them at 900 yards, and by the
time they had finished shooting at 1000 yards were ahead of the
Americans. In the end the match was to be determined by the very
last shot fired by the Americans. Shooting a bull's eye at 1000
yards to score 4, the Americans emerged the winners on 934 points to
the Irish team's 931.
This match was the forerunner the
Palma Match and a series of international competitions held through
the 1870's and 1880's. Public interest eventually waned and the
matches went into decline, until in 1890 Creedmoor was deeded back
to the state of New York and the NRA became dormant. Activities were
not revived again until 1900, and in 1901 the Palma Trophy was again
shot for. The event continues to this day.
Original Published by - Long Range Muzzle Loader
Copyright © 2001
David Minshall - All Rights Reserved.
- Used with
express written permission -
CREEDMOOR RIFLE: Style of rifle used at "Creedmoor" international
shooting matches and in other "Long Range" shooting competitions. The
first 'Creedmoor' rifles were manufactured by Sharps and Remington for the
Irish / American international rifle match of 1874. Creedmoor was
not a brand name or a rifle manufacturer, but was commonly used as the
model or style with a model number such as "Sharps Model 1877
Creedmoor". Creedmoor style rifles are often built on the Sharps 1877
pattern rifles and on similar muzzle loading black powder long guns,
though the American team used Sharps Model 1874 guns in their first
international competition at Creedmoor. Now the name is synonymous with
very high quality long range rifles and has even been applied to guns made
before Creedmoor matches. The rifle used in the film "Quigley Down Under"
was a "Creedmoor" style rifle. Manufacturers still make "Creedmoor" model
rifles today. Creedmoor models are still used in long range black powder
competitions and I would add, they are still winning, even though it has
been over 125 years since the international competitions at the Long
The 1877 Sharps "Creedmoor" Rifle
By the year 1875, Long Range Target shooting
was very much in vogue in America. The Creedmoor Rifle Range was
established on Long Island, New York, and the competition between
the rifle companies to produce accurate Long Range Target rifles was
fierce. The Sharps Rifle Company's Model 1874 had already proven
itself a winner in the 1875 match against the Irish team at their
As competition grew, so did the demand for
accuracy. Shooters from all over the country wrote the Sharps Rifle
Company suggesting their ideas for improvement. The most constant
request was for a smoother, faster action and a heavier more stable
barrel. The Sharps Rifle Company listened to the requests and the
result was the Model 1877. With it's English lock, improved lock
time, and it's Rigby style barrel to reduce "barrel whip"; the
Sharps Rifle Company, once again, had a proven winner.
CREEDMOOR SIGHT(S): Creedmoor
tang sights are fully adjustable for windage and elevation. The long
Creedmoor sight was designed for heavy target rifles like the Rolling
Block. The short Creedmoor sight is suitable for lever actions and small
single shot target rifles. The Deluxe Creedmoor sight is precision, match
grade version of the long Creedmoor model.
CREEDMOOR SPORTS INC.: Manufacturer
and retailer of fine quality shooting products and supplies for shooting
competition and the tactical shooter. This is a top notch outfit with the
very best of reputations among competition shooters (who are typically
very anal and demanding). Creedmoor Sports has been manufacturing top
quality products for the competitive rifle shooter and tactical sniper
since 1979. That almost 25-years. All products manufactured by Creedmoor
Sports, Inc. are made in the USA and handcrafted in Oceanside, California
by a production staff that averages over 10 years of service with the
company. All products manufactured by Creedmoor come with a Lifetime
Warranty against manufacturers defect, yes LIFETIME.
CRIMP: The bending
inward of the case mouth to grip the bullet. With shot shells the term
applies to the closure at the case mouth.
CRIMPED PRIMER: A forcing inward of the brass around the
top of the primer pocket. This is frequently found on military cartridges
and is done to prevent set-back of primers. The crimp must be
removed before repriming the case.
Abbreviation for Chief Range Officer.
CROSS-DOMINANT: In reference to the shooters eye dominance,
to be cross-dominant means that you are right-handed, and yet rely on your
left eye to aim, or vice versa. It is more common to be left-handed
and left-eyed, or right-handed and right-eyed, but it is not unheard of to
be cross dominant as well. Switching eye dominance is no simpler
than switching hand dominance; if your brain is wired to rely on your
right eye, there is little you can do to change this. Some people
try to force this, but it is unnecessary. I am Cross-Dominant as are
several of my shooting buddies including a world class SF Sniper, an IPSC
Grand Master and a few normal humans who happen to be excellent shots.
CROSSFIRE: A shot
accidentally fired on a target assigned to another shooter. In
tactical terms being in an impact area between fires or being in a
position between two points of fire.
CROSSHAIR: Either of two
fine strands of wire crossed in the focus of the eyepiece of an optical
instrument or scope and used as a calibration or sighting reference.
Both Cross Hair & Crosshair are correct.
CROSS HAIR: Term
for the crossing wires or other aiming mark in an optical sight. The
fine wires or material look like fine hair lending to the term, however
during World War II, a bombing sight was developed using real human hair.
It was called the Norton Bomb Sight and all of the Cross-Hairs in the
bombing apertures used the hair from one American woman who volunteered
and was selected for the properties of her hair. See also the
detailed definitions for Reticule & Graticule.
recessed end or countersunk bore of a muzzle. Done to insure that
the mouth of the bore is square with the bore axis and that the edge is
countersunk below the surface to protect it from impact damage.
CROWNING: The rounding
or chamfering normally done to a barrel muzzle to insure that the mouth of
the bore is square with the bore axis and that the edge is countersunk
below the surface to protect it from impact damage. Traditionally,
crowning was accomplished by spinning an abrasive coated brass ball
against the muzzle while moving it in a figure eight pattern until the
abrasive had cut away any irregularities and produced a uniform and square
mouth. Typical crown angles are 8 to 14 degrees, with the 11 degree
crown angle being most common.
Noun. Originally the holder of a Type 03 (C&R) FFL, but now anyone
who has an interest in old, historical, or just plain weird firearms for
which ammunition is usually hard to come by.
Verb. To seek out old, historical, and
weird firearms to shoot, study, admire, and place in historical context.
Includes engaging in ceaseless research, correspondence, and conversation
about same. Also requires a refinement of fiscal priorities i.e. "I
can eat this week, or I can get that all-matching Norwegian .30-06
Active Participant in the art of finding Curious & Relics. For a
true Cruffler, this is often equated with breathing.
CRYO: Slang for Cryogenic as in
Cryogenic Tempering or Cryogenic Treatment. Usage "My AR-15 has a "Cryo"
barrel. See detailed descriptions below.
CRYOGENICS: The word Cryogenics
is derived from two Greek words. Cryo or "kryos", which means cold,
and genics or "genes", which means the science of or the study of.
Cryogenics is part of a very broad area of science, covering food
preservation, medical treatment, thermal imaging, industrial gases and
liquids. Please see the details of Cryogenic Tempering below for
information on how Cryogenics relate to firearms and gunnery.
Computer controlled cooling process that relieves barrel stress by
subjecting the barrel to a temperature of - 300 degrees F for 22 hours.
Also know as Cryo Treatment. Our test have proved that a properly
cryogenically treated rifle barrel will not only shoot 15 to 50% tighter
groups, but will also be easier to clean and most importantly will have
200 to 300% better durability. See below for a detailed explanation
and for contact information on a state of the art cryogenic treatment
Cryogenics - by
The word Cryogenics is derived from two Greek
words. Cryo or "kryos", which means cold and genics or "genes",
which means the science or study of. Cryogenics is part of a
very broad area of science, covering food preservation, medical
treatment, thermal imaging, industrial gases and liquids. At
Advanced Cryogenics, we specialize in a sector of Cryogenics known
as Deep Cryogenic Tempering.
Deep Cryogenic Tempering
It is called Deep Cryogenic Tempering, because we operate at
temperatures from -240 degrees Fahrenheit to -320 degrees
Fahrenheit. Shallow Cryogenics, would be the process of cooling to
temperature from -110 degrees Fahrenheit to -239 degrees Fahrenheit.
Deep Cryogenic Tempering is the process of cooling (using liquid
nitrogen) inert materials ( primarily metals ) at a controlled rate
until the material reaches -300 degrees Fahrenheit. These parts are
then maintained at -300 degreed Fahrenheit for a pre-determined time
period. After which they are return to ambient temperature.
But, this is not the end. The materials are then subsequently
tempering in a series of heating cycles.
Cryogenics - The Science of Cold
Cryogenics is the science of ultra low
temperatures and the study of its effect on various materials.
The upper limit of cryogenic temperatures has not been agreed on,
nut the National Bureau of Standards has suggested that the term
cryogenics be applied to all temperatures below -150 degrees C (
-238 degrees Fahrenheit or 123 degrees above absolute zero on the
Kelvin scale ). Some scientists regard the normal
Boiling point of oxygen ( -183 degrees C or -297 degrees Fahrenheit
), as the upper limit.
Cryogenic Temperatures, Cryogenic temperatures are achieved either
by the rapid evaporation of volatile liquids or by the expansion of
gases confined initially at pressures of 150 to 200
atmospheres. The expansion may be simple, that is, through a valve
to a region of lower pressure, or it may occur in the cylinder of a
reciprocation engine, with the gas driving the piston of the engine.
The second method is more efficient but is also more difficult to
CSP: Abbreviation for Classical or
Classic Safety Position.
CUP or C.U.P.:
Abbreviation for Copper Unit of Pressure. A pressure value
determined by means of copper "crushing" cylinders using SAAMI recommended
procedures and equipment. The amount of crushing caused or the
measured change in the mass of a standardized copper cylinder when exposed
to the explosive force of a certain charge determines the CUP value.
The CUP measurement is used to express chamber pressure or the pressure
the expanding gasses exert on the interior parts of a firearm. CUP
measurements replaced the L.U.P. or Lead Unit of Pressure
measurement of old. CUP & LUP are now generally obsolete being
replaced by Piezo electric measurements of actual pressure, but CUP values
are still referred to for comparison.
CUPRO-NICKEL: An silver-colored
alloy of copper and nickel used to make bullet jackets. U.S. Ball, .30
caliber, M1906, and British .303 Small Arms Ammunition Ball MK. VII, for
example, were made with cupro-nickel jackets.
CURIOS & RELICS: a.k.a. Curios
or Relics; Any firearm that was demonstrably manufactured 50 years or more
prior to the current date, and / or is on a special "Curios
or Relics List" published by the
CURIOS OR RELICS FFL: Since
1968, in order to legally receive a firearm shipped across state lines,
the recipient must possess a valid "Federal Firearms License" or FFL
issued by the United States Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol,
Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF).
There are many types of licenses; for dealers, for manufacturers, for
importers and for firearms collectors. The collector license (known
as a Type 03 license) is unique in that it does not permit the licensee to
engage in a business, but rather is specifically designed to enable the
collector of old firearms. Furthermore, the holder of a Type 03
license is restricted to receiving firearms that have been classified by
the BATF as "Curios or Relics" as
above. As a result of these specializations, the Type 03 Federal Firearms
License is known as the Curios and Relics Federal Firearms License.
See also: CRUFFLE.
CURVED BARREL ADAPTOR: A
barrel attachment for the German MP44 Assault Rifle that allowed the gun
to shoot around corners. The MP44 or Machine Pistol Model 44 was a
7.92 x 33mm caliber rifle. The curved barrel adaptor or attachment
was effective for a few hundred rounds and included an optical periscope
type mirror called a prismatic sight, that allowed the shooter to see
around the corner or out of a room or trench.
Periscope type "Prismatic Sighting System" on
Curved Barrel Adaptor
The attachment was the fruit of
experiments, carried out in Germany during the early1940s, with the
object of providing a device which would enable troops to shoot from
behind cover, without exposing themselves to enemy fire. Various
deflecting troughs and curved barrels were tried with a number of
infantry weapons, before the combination which is shown was
developed. The relatively short bullet fired by the MP44 made
it particularly suitable for this role. The attachment
deflects the flight of the bullet through 30 degrees and, with the
aid of the prismatic sight which is fitted, a reasonable degree of
accuracy can be attained. A further version of the device was
developed which deflected the bullet through 90 degrees. This was
intended for use as a close-defense weapon by armored vehicle crews;
however it was found that bullets fired through it generally
fragmented due to the stresses involved.
German MP44 Assault Rifle with Curved Barrel
The curved barrel device has
proved something of a technological dead-end. By contrast, the
rifle itself was of fundamental importance in the development of
modern military firearms, being the first "Assault Rifle" to see
widespread use. The assault rifle concept grew from a
realization that the ammunition fired by conventional rifles was too
powerful for normal combat use. It could kill at over 2000
meters, but First World War experience showed that infantry
firefights seldom occurred at ranges in excess of 400 meters.
Consequently it was perceived that smaller and less powerful
cartridges could be used. Although such thinking was current
in several countries, Germany was the first to put it into practical
Using a shortened version of the standard rifle cartridge, an
intermediate cartridge, the German assault rifle was able to deliver
controllable fully-automatic fire against close-range targets, while
still offering the possibility of accurate aimed fire out to all
normal combat ranges. This development revolutionized the
infantryman's armament, rendering conventional rifles and
submachine-guns obsolescent. The concept was soon taken up by
other nations, most notably by the Soviet Union with the famous
Kalashnikov Avtomat (AK47). Assault rifles are now standard
equipment in armies throughout the world.
For more information on
Assault Rifles Click Here.
CUSTOM DEFENSIVE PISTOL: An IDPA (International
Defensive Pistol Association) division of competition for .45 ACP and 10mm
shooters. The division includes Colt & clone model 1911s, the Glock
20 and 21, the Para-Ordnance .45 ACP and STI / SVI type handguns in .45
ACP and 10mm chambering. Abbreviated CDP.
CYLINDER: The rotating or
revolving drum, found on revolvers, which contains multiple chambers.
Most commonly, a cylinder will contain six chambers, but some are made
with as many as ten. When a revolver is discharged, the cylinder is
rotated by the action to bring the next chamber in line with the barrel.
2. The part of a revolver, immediately behind the barrel, that revolves
and has a number of chambers into which cartridges are placed. A
cylinder can rotate left or right depending on the design of the revolver.
In a modern solid-frame, swing out revolver, the U-shaped yoke on which
the cylinder rotates, and which holds the cylinder in the frame.
Also called the crane.