M: When indicated for IPSC and IDPA score card use, the letter M indicates a miss. a.k.a. "MIKE".
M: In typical military nomenclature and model designator application, the letter M stands for Model, as in M1 = Model One.
M1 ABRAMS: Abrams Main Battle Tank. The M-1 Abrams MBT, is an American main battle tank. It is manned by a crew of four, weighs 54.5 tones, and a top road speed of 72 kmph. It is armed with a 105mm smooth bore main gun with an effective range of 2500m. It can carry 55 rounds of ammunition, including HEAT and SABOT shells. The M1 Abrams tank is named in honor of U.S. Army General Clayton Abrams, a World War II Tank Commander.
M1 Carbine: The M1 is a US gas operated carbine rifle. It takes a .30 caliber straight pistol type round from a 15/30-round box. It has a muzzle velocity of 585 m/s and has fixed sights set at 275m.
The M1A1 is a folding stock version of the M1 carbine rifle.
M1 GARAND RIFLE: Rifle, Caliber .30-06, M1 Garand. The M1, designed by John C. Garand, was the standard issue military rifle used by the U.S. Army from 1936 to1957, when it was replaced by the lighter M14 rifle. The M1 was one of the first semi-automatic rifles to see action in combat. It offered a great improvement in fire power over the bolt-action M1903 series rifle it replaced. It was rugged, reliable, and tolerant to the abuses of use in the field. The rifle used .30-06 cal. cartridges in eight-round clips. For more information on the M1 Garand see the information below.
The M2A1 or Bradley IFV entered service with the US army in 1982. It carries a crew of 3 and a 7
man infantry squad. The M2A1 is armed with a twin TOW 2 launcher in the turret and can carry an
additional 5 missiles, including TOW, Dragons and Stingers. The main gun is a 25mm
automatic chain gun for which 900 rounds of APDS and HE ammunition is carried. The M2A1
has a top road speed of 66kph.
M9: The M9 is a full sized 9mm semi-automatic pistol manufactured by Beretta, and adopted by the American military in place of the M1911. The M9 is basically the same as the model 92 Beretta.
M11: The M11 is a medium sized 9mm semi-automatic pistol manufactured by SIG Arms, and adopted by the American military for use by Military Police, CID Investigators, Special Operations Forces and Air Crews as well as for soldiers with hands to small for the large M9 pistol. The M11 is the same as the SIG model P228 and has a 13+1 capacity.
M13/40: The M13/40 was an Italian Second world war tank of bolted amour plates, up to 40 mm thick, which were prone to split apart under fire. It was armed with a 47 mm gun and had a top speed of 32 kmph and a range of 200 km.
M14: The m14 is a US automatic rifle developed in the 1950s to replace the Garand. It takes a 7.62mm round from a 20-round box. It has a muzzle velocity of 853 m/s and is sighted to 915m with a cyclic rate of 750 rpm.
M16: The M16 (ArmaLite AR-15) is a US automatic
rifle. It takes a .233" round from a 30-round
M16A2: Assault rifle adopted as a standard weapon by the U.S. Army in 1967. The M16 superseded the M14 rifle. It is gas-operated and has both semi-automatic (i.e., auto loading) and fully automatic capabilities. Weighing less than 3.6 kg (8 pounds) and equipped with a 20-round or 30-round magazine, the M16 is 99 cm (39 inches) long and fires 5.56-millimetre (.223 caliber) ammunition at the rate of 700-950 rounds per minute. Both U.S. and South Vietnamese forces used it during the Vietnam War. Current issue M16A2 models are equipped with 3 position Select Fire; Safe - Semi - and 3 Shot Burst.
M22 Locust: The M22 Locust was an American light air-portable tank of the Second World War. It weighed
7.26 tones and was manned by a crew of three and armed with a 37 mm main gun. It had
amour up to 25 mm thick and a top road speed of 56 kmph.
The M29 is a family of American 81mm mortars.
The M47 (Dragon) is an American infantry anti-tank/assault missile. It has a flight speed of
230mph and a range of 1000m. It is optically wire guided by the operator.
M48: The M48 Chaparral is an American forward area air-defense missile system. It launches surface-to-air missiles (SAM) which use infrared homing to target heat emitter guidance. The missiles fly at a speed of mach 2.5 to a ceiling of 2,500m and a range of 4,800m.
M60 Machine Gun: The M60 Machine Gun has been the US Army's general purpose machine gun since 1950. It fires the standard NATO 7.62 mm round and is used as a general support crew-served weapon. It has a removable barrel which can be easily changed to prevent overheating. The weapon has an integral, folding bipod and can also be mounted on a folding tripod. Machine Gun, 7.62mm, M60 series. The M60 was type classified in 1957 as a companion to the 7.62mm M14 rifle. The M60 is lighter than the .30 cal. M1919A6 and only slightly heavier than the .30 cal. M1918A2 Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) it replaced.
The M60 7.62mm machine gun has been the U.S. Army's general purpose medium machine gun since the late 1950s. The M60 fires standard NATO 7.62mm ammunition and is used as a general support crew-served weapon. It has a removable barrel which can be easily changed to prevent overheating. The weapon has an integral, folding bipod and can also be mounted on a folding tripod. The M60 has a rate of fire of 600 rpm. The M60C and M60D are aircraft versions of the basic M60 machine gun. The M60 series is being replaced by the M240B 7.62mm medium machine gun.
M102: The M102 is an American 105mm caliber light-howitzer. It has a range of
11,500 meters with standard
ammunition and 15,100m with rap ammunition.
The M109A2 is one of the M109 series. It is armed with a 155mm howitzer and Browning
M2 .50 caliber anti-aircraft machine gun.
M240B: Machine Gun, 7.62mm, M240 series. After extensive operational and technical tests, the Army type classified the Fabrique Nationale MAG as the M240B 7.62mm medium machine gun as a replacement for the M60 series machine guns. Used as a fixed machine gun, the M240 also replaced the M73/M219 7.62mm and the M85 .50 cal. tank machine guns. The M240B is a ground mounted flexible variant of the M240 / M240C / M240E1 coaxial / pintle mounted machine gun used on M2/M3 series Bradley Fighting Vehicles, the M1 series Abrams Main Battle Tank, and the U.S. Marine Corps LAV-series of Light Armored Vehicles. While possessing many of the same basic characteristics as the M60 medium machine gun, the durability of the M240 system results in superior reliability and maintainability when compared to the M60. A similar version of the M240, the M240G, is the standard U.S. Marine Corps medium machine gun. The M240 has a firing rate of 700-1000 rpm.
The M242 is a 25mm chain gun mounted on M2A1 and M3A1 CFVs. It has a muzzle velocity of
1100m/s and fires APDS ammunition with amour penetration of 27mm at 500m.
M249 SAWS: Machine Gun, 5.56mm, M249 Squad Automatic Weapon System (SAWS)
The M249 SAWS light machine gun is gas-operated, magazine or disintegrating metallic link-belt fed,
The Rheinmetall M256 is a 120mm smoothbore gun mounted on M1A1/A2 MBT and Leopard 2
MBT. It has a muzzle velocity of 1661m/s firing APFSDS ammunition and an
of 399mm at 500m and 368mm at 1000m.
The M901A2 ITV is the standard anti-tank missile carrier of the American army. It is based upon
the M113 chassis with an Emerson elevating turret on top. It carries a crew of 4, is armed with
TOW- 2 launchers and a 7.62mm machine gun on the roof. 12 missiles are carried.
M1911A1: The M1911A1 was a .45 inch caliber automatic pistol designed by Browning in 1921 and manufactured by Colt. It had a semi-automatic recoil action and took a 7-round magazine.
M1935A: The M1935A was the standard pistol of the French army during the second World War. It was a 7.65 mm .32 caliber semi-automatic pistol with a recoil-operation. It took an 8-round magazine.
MACHINE GUN: A fully automatic firearm using a cartridge designed and intended for use in rifles or larger firearms. Machine Guns are firearms of great military significance. Machine Guns or MG's are often crew-served, and operate so that on trigger depression or pull, the gun automatically feeds and fires cartridges of rifle size or greater. Civilian ownership in the U.S. has been heavily curtailed and federally regulated since 1934, however civilian ownership of machine guns is legal in most states. See below for details and history.
MAGAZINE: A spring-loaded container for cartridges that may be an integral part of the firearms mechanism or may be detachable. Detachable magazines for the same model of firearm may be offered by the guns manufacturer or other manufacturers with various capacities. A gun with a five-shot detachable magazine, for instance, may be fitted with a magazine holding 10, 20, or 50 or more rounds. Box magazines are most commonly located under the receiver with the cartridges stacked vertically. Tube or tubular magazines typically run through the stock or under the barrel with the cartridges lying horizontally or end to nose. Drum magazines hold their cartridges in a circular mode. The term magazine can also be used to describe a secure storage place for ammunition or explosives as in a war ships magazine.
The word Magazine may sound like a gun-related publication, but actually it is a small box, generally made of metal, that holds ammunition. Certain types of semiautomatic firearms are loaded by inserting a loaded magazine into the base of the firearm. Magazines are manufactured to hold a specific number of cartridges. A magazine is not a "clip", and use of the term "clip" to refer to a magazine (in spite of frequent TV goofs of this nature) is incorrect. The Assault Weapons Ban of 1994, limited the magazine capacity of firearms produced after 1994 to a maximum of 10 cartridges. Old "Full Capacity" and so called "High Capacity" magazines are still legal as long as they were manufactured prior to the ban. Newly manufactured full capacity magazines are marked "Restricted for Military and Law Enforcement Only."
MAGAZINE DISCONNECTORS): (Magazine Safeties) A magazine disconnector is a passive mechanical locking device which is designed to prevent the unintended discharge of the weapon when the magazine is removed from the pistol. Like the loaded chamber indicator, the magazine disconnector was originally developed in the early 1900s by European gun manufacturers. When a magazine is not fully inserted into the gun, the linkage between the trigger and the hammer release is disconnected. This prevents the pistol from being fired, even if a cartridge is in the chamber.
MAGAZINE RELEASE: A button (usually) on the side
of a semi-automatic that can be pressed to release the magazine. Also know as Mag
MAINSPRING: The spring that delivers energy to the hammer or striker. The mainspring is the initial source of the energy needed to fire the gun. Cocking the hammer compresses the mainspring, generating potential energy. The recoil or operating spring in semiautomatic guns is a part of the breech closing system; is not the same as the mainspring.
MAJOR: Category designation for a type of firearm and ammunition that compete and are scored in the Major Power Factor category in IPSC competition. Slang for a round that makes the Major Power Factor in IPSC.
MAJOR POWER FACTOR: A power rating used by IPSC. A round is said to "make major" if its power factor exceeds 175. Shooters scores are based on the Major or Minor Power Factor with Major Power Factor scoring higher hit points for B - C and D zone hits. See power factor.
MAKAROV: The standard Russian military sidearm since the 1950s. Official designation is "PM" for "Pistolet Makarova." It was designed by Oleg Makarov. It is a blowback operated semiautomatic pistol, which fires the 9x18mm Makarov cartridge, and holds 8 rounds in the magazine. It has also been made in the Peoples Republic of China, East Germany, and Bulgaria.
MALFUNCTION: A general term to describe any failure of the firearm to behave as intended. Malfunctions include failures to fire caused by failures in either the firearm or the ammunition. They also include cases where the gun fails after firing successfully (stove pipes, failure to feed, etc.) Competition organizations have different rules for dealing with malfunctions during a course of fire. Some (such as IDPA) expect the competitor to deal with malfunction on the clock and continue the string. Others may allow a competitor to re-shoot a string following a malfunction.
MANUAL THUMB SAFETY: Located on the side of the handgun, manual thumb safeties are intended to reduce the unintentional discharge of the weapon during normal use. Generally found only on pistols, these safeties can operate in several ways. Depending on the design, engagement of the safety mechanism may lock the slide, move the firing pin out of reach of the hammer, insert a block between the hammer and firing pin, or lock the hammer. In the locked position, all manual thumb safeties, if functioning properly, prevent the handgun from discharging when the trigger is pulled. Virtually all pistols produced, have some type of manual thumb safety. The Exception being the more modern designs by SIG Sauer and Glock which have other [read better] built in safeties. Double action-only pistols and revolvers do not usually include this device.
MANNLICHER STOCK: A full length slender stock with slender forend extending to the muzzle (full stock) affording better barrel protection. Originally found on the Mannlicher rifle.
MATCH: A shooting meet or organized firearms competition. Example: IDPA Match.
MATCH ACTION: A firearms action that is specially prepared for shooting in competition or for match use. Typically Match Actions have a squared and true bolt face, action and locking lugs. The mechanical tolerances are closer or measured to a higher standard to facilitate improved accuracy and reliability. A Speed Lock Spring and light weight firing pin are often used to decrease lock time and facilitate near immediate ignition when the trigger is pulled. The trigger on most match guns is of a two (2) stage design or machined and adjusted to a very light trigger pull weight.
MATCH AMMO: (Match Ammunition) Ammunition special loaded or prepared for enhanced accuracy or to suit the specific needs of a shooting match. Match Rifle ammunition is typically a hotter faster load capable of shooting small groups and often uses Boat Tail type projectiles that are inherently more accurate. Some match ammo also uses cases that are more robust for multiple reloads.
MATCH BARREL: A rifle or handgun barrel specifically designed or prepared for shooting in competition or shooting matches. A typical rifle match barrel is of a more heavy contour and is designed for extreme accuracy and for less barrel sag when fired from a hot barrel. Often match barrels are made of higher grade steel or stainless steel with lands and groves broach cut to increase accuracy and to lessen the chance of fouling. Many Match Rifles have specific rifling twists for the specific bullet weight and for the distance to the target. Most Match Guns are not well suited for defensive or hunting use.
MATCH GRADE: A commercial designation that implies enhanced accuracy and performance in ammunition and components. The term is often used to specify a "Match Grade" barrel or for ammunition that is said by the producers to be better suited for competition use.
MAUSER: German firearms company founded in 1872. In 1897 Mauser produced the Mauser Gewehr magazine-rifle. It was Germany's answer to the French Lebel M1888. It has been claimed that it was the most successful bolt-action rifle ever designed.
MAUSER, PETER PAUL: Peter Paul Mauser was born in 1838 and died in 1914. Mauser was a German weapons manufacturer from Oberndorf Germany and industrialist who with his brother Wilhelm Mauser (1834–1882) invented a breech loading rifle and a repeating pistol and rifle. Mauser's impact was truly historic. While some of his original receivers were based on the Dreyse action, was truly basic and one of the first successful metallic cartridge, bolt action rifles. Almost every good original feature of the metallic cartridge, turning bolt action design is attributed to the work of Peter Paul Mauser. He systematically developed his basic design and changed the world of firearms manufacturing forever. Mauser designs and principles for metallic case cartridges and rifle designs are still used in the majority of bolt action or turn-bolt rifles today.
Mauser Model 71 - M1871
The German Mauser Rifle
Manufactured in Danzig in 1875, this was the most important of numerous single shot bolt actions introduced in 1870-71. Germany officially adopted it as the Gewehr in 1871. This is the design of Peter Paul Mauser, a German design genius from Oberndorf and while based on the Dreyse action, was truly basic and one of the first successful metallic cartridge, bolt action rifles.
Almost every good original feature of the metallic cartridge, turning bolt action design, was the work of Peter Paul Mauser. He systematically developed his basic design.
GENERALLY: The I.G. (Infanterie-Gewehr) Mod. 71 German Mauser was the first of what would become literally millions of rifles manufactured to the design of the brothers Paul and Wilhelm Mauser and the first regulation brass cartridge rifle of the German Imperial Army. Almost every good original feature of the metallic cartridge, turning bolt action design, was the work of design genius Peter Paul Mauser who systematically developed his basic design over an extended period of time and, while based on the Dreyse action, was innovative and one of the first successful metallic cartridge, bolt action rifles. During 1870-71 trials with many different rifles took place, with the M1869 Bavarian Werder being Mauser’s chief competitor.
The Mauser was provisionally adopted at the end of 1871 pending the development of an appropriate safety. The now universally recognized "wing" type safety lever on the back of the bolt was developed to fill this requirement and the Mod.71 Mauser was adopted by Germany in early 1872. The Mod.71 Mauser is a rather plain and conventional looking bolt action single shot chambered in typical 11 millimeter. The design is a split bridge, single shot, bolt action developed from the experimental Mauser-Norris of 1868 at the royal Wurttemberg Armory in Oberndorf, and very similar in functioning to the French Chasspot, forerunner of the Mle.1874 French Gras. The action included only a bolt guide rib as its single locking lug, locking forward of the receiving bridge.
Rifles were manufactured in Spandau, in Oberndorf by Mauser, in Erfurt by O.W. Steyr (OEWG), in Danzig and even initially by National Arms and Ammunition Company in Birmingham, England. Additional rifles were also manufactured in Amberg (Bavaria) after conversions of the Bavarian Werders to the M1871 standard were completed (those rifles becoming the M1869 n.M. Bavarian Werder) .
The barrels were finished browned, trigger guard
finished either iron in the white or in bronze, receiver and bolt in
natural white, the butt plate in bronze and remaining hardware fire
PHOTO: The rifle shown is an I.G.Mod.71. (M1871) German Mauser.
DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS: The left receiver flat is marked I.G. Mod. 71. (Infanterie-Gewehr) in highly Gothic script. There is a Monarch's Cipher which could be F.W. (Fredrik Wilhelm of Prussia), L. for King Ludwig of Bavarian, or W. (for the Wurttemberg Kingdom). The most common varieties seem to be those manufactured in and marked "Spandau" and "Amberg"
MISC. NOTES: Interestingly, the
Mod.71 is the first rifle firing metallic center fire cartridges
produced on an assembly line basis. Quantities of the Mod.71 were
also sold to China, Japan and Uruguay. A variation of the Mod.71
was also sold to Serbia and Transvaal.
Infanterie-Gewehr (Infantry Rifle) I. G. Mod. 71. German Mauser:
A Mauser, single shot, turn bolt rifle. It was made by Steyr in Austria in 1875. It is approximately 5 inches shorter than the same model made in Danzig in the same year. These rifles were used in China in the Boxer Rebellion and also by German African Colonial Troops during World War 1.
MEAN POINT OF IMPACT: The mathematical center of a group of shots (usually 3 to 5) fired at the same point of aim. Abbreviated MPI.
MENTAL DISCIPLINE: in marksmanship is the shooter's ability to maintain his concentration on sight alignment while the other fundamentals of minimum arc of movement and trigger control are being employed at their optimum.
MERCURIC PRIMER: A primer in which the priming mixture contains mercury.
METAL CASE (MC): A type of bullet which, except for a small opening at the base, is completely encased in a jacket.
MICROMETER: A very presses measuring device that is typically hand held. Used in hand and ammunition reloading to measure bullets and cases.
MICROMETER SIGHT: A finely adjustable target sight.
MID RANGE TRAJECTORY: Refers to the distance the bullet rises above the line of sight. Mid-range trajectory is calculated halfway between the muzzle and the target.
MIKE: Phonetic pronunciation of
the letter M. Used to call or mark a miss on a target in competition.
MINIMUM ARC OF MOVEMENT: is the smallest degree of
movement that the shooter can attain in the body shooting arm and weapon during the time
of firing a shot.
MISSISSIPPI RIFLE: Slang term for the U.S. Rifle Model M1841, a .54 caliber Muzzle loading Rifle. The name comes from their use by a group of U.S. Volunteers from Mississippi who were commanded by Jefferson Davis in the Mexican War. Some were later rebored to .58 caliber - The rifles not the volunteers :)
MITRAILLEUSE: The French Mitrailleuse was a multi-barreled weapon that used a loading plate which contained a cartridge for each of its 25 barrels. The barrels and the loading plate remained fixed, and a mechanism (operated by a crank) struck individual firing pins simultaneously or in succession. The Mitrailleuse issued to the French army fired 11mm Chassepot rifle ammunition. Weighing more than 2,000 pounds, it was mounted on a wheeled carriage and was usually employed in volley fire, with all barrels discharging at once. French forces in the Franco-German War endeavored to use it in a manner similar to artillery, but it was no match for breech-loading cannon firing explosive shells.
MOA: Abbreviation for Minute of Angle.
MODEL NUMBER: Alpha-numeric nomenclature designation given to military equipment. In the case of many of the small arms issues to U.S. forces, the model number may be the year the armament or equipment was adopted for service or fielded. For example, the Pistol, Caliber .45 ACP M1911 was fielded in 1911 and the Browning Automatic Rifle M1918 was fielded in 1918. In modern times the model number is an alpha numeric designation that is not related to the date the item was fielded and is more likely a series number. Model numbers are also repeated and used for more than one item. There may be an M1 Antenna, an M1 Field Desk and an M1 Tank, so one must read the complete nomenclature for an accurate description.
MODULAR WEAPONS SYSTEM: Generic term and military noun nomenclature for a series of quick attachment systems used to accommodate the use of various devices and accessories on a firearm. The Modular Weapons System or MWS adds flexibility and adaptability to a proven rifle design. The MWS has recently been adopted by the U.S. Army and type classified. The precision machined aircraft aluminum Picatinny type (Military Specification 1913) rail exceeds military requirements for bore alignment retention and allows the rifle barrel to cool much faster than with conventional hand guards. The RIS / MWS was originally designed for the military M16 and AR-15 family of rifles and carbines. Recently, new RIS / MWS were developed for several other rifles, carbines and sub-machineguns. The MWS is commercially available as the Rail Interface System or RIS by KAC Knights Armament System. A Top Rail only system is made by A.R.M.S.
MONTE CARLO STOCK: A stock with an elevated comb used primarily for scoped rifles.
MORTAR: In warfare, a short-range weapon that fires a shell on a high trajectory. The name once applied to a heavy ARTILLERY piece but lately has designated a much lighter, muzzle-loaded, smooth-bore INFANTRY weapon consisting principally of a tube and a supporting bipod that fires a fairly heavy projectile in a high arc. The mortar is the deadliest weapon on the modern battlefield.
MOVEMENT TO CONTACT: A type of military maneuver; typically an offensive operation designed to gain initial ground contact with the enemy or to regain lost contact.
MUJAHEDIN: Islamic militant group initially established to fight in Afghanistan against Soviet occupation. The Mujahedin Rebels were originally formed and based in Pakistan. They recruited from several Islamic counties and were supported and trained by the American CIA and U.S. Army Special Forces to counter deployed forces of the USSR. They were eventually equipped with American made Stinger Anti-Aircraft missiles, which they employed with great effect against low flying Soviet helicopters and aircraft. Offshoots of this militant Islamic group are now categorized at terrorists and currently operate in the Kashmir region between India and Pakistan. See: Harakat ul-Mujahedin (HUM) in the detail box below.
MULTI-BARRELED: A gun with more than one barrel, the most common being the double-barreled shotgun.
MUNITION: War materiel, especially weapons and ammunition. Often used in the plural. mu·ni·tioned, mu·ni·tion·ing, mu·ni·tions To supply with munitions. 2. Whatever materials are used in war for defense or for annoying an enemy; ammunition; also, stores and provisions; military stores of all kinds.
MUSHROOMED BULLET: Description of a bullet whose forward diameter has expanded after penetration, having the shape of a mushroom.
MUSKET: A smoothbore military Muzzle Loading shoulder arm. Muskets were the worldwide standard in military infantry weapons before the adoption of the rifled barrel or "rifle" as standard. The advantage muskets possess over rifles is that being smoothbores and using undersize bullets, they could be loaded much more quickly than a Muzzle Loading rifle. The downside to this is that muskets were very inaccurate compared to rifles. Shooting at an individual target, they possess an effective range of about 50 yards. For this reason, massed volley fire was used, with the idea that if you throw enough lead at the enemy some of the bullets will strike home. In modern terms this principle is called Firepower.
MUZZLE: The open end of the barrel from which the projectile
exits. The front end of a barrel.
MUZZLE ENERGY: Energy of a projectile at the muzzle end of a firearm measured in foot pounds. A projectile's capacity for doing work at a given range, expressed in foot-pounds, measured at the muzzle or end of the barrel. To calculate Kinetic Energy use the formula below.
MUZZLE LOADER also MUZZLELOADER: The earliest type of gun, now also popular as modern made replicas, in which black powder and projectiles) are separately loaded in through the muzzle. The term is often applied to cap-and-ball revolvers where the loading is done not actually through the muzzle but through the open ends of the cylinders chambers. All early cannons and ship board artillery were also muzzle loaders.
MUZZLE VELOCITY: The speed of a projectile exiting the muzzle of a firearm typically measured in feet per second (fps) or meters per second (m/s). U.S. industry standard muzzle velocity is measured 15 inches from the muzzle. Abbreviated MV or (mv).
MV: Abbreviation for Muzzle Velocity.
MWS: Acronym for Modular Weapon System. See above.